Abstract

Differential interference contrast microscopy, imaging by interferometric superposition of two displaced beams passed through a transparent sample, is one of the most sophisticated methods in classical microscopy. Here we demonstrate a versatile electronically controlled variant using a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator that displays a diffractive optical element and steers the beam separation. The orientation and magnitude of the shear angle and the relative phase of the two interfering beams can all be varied at video rates. The technique is demonstrated by imaging polystyrene beads in immersion oil and a sample of red blood cells. The method expands the capabilities of previous implementations of differential interference contrast microscopy by its nonmechanical control over all imaging parameters.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

2007 (1)

S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 146, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1955 (1)

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9S (1955).

Arnison, M. R.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Opt. Express 16, 19821 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 146, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertilson, M.

Cabrini, S.

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cogswell, C. J.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cottrell, D.

Cui, X.

X. Cui, M. Lew, and C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danz, R.

R. Danz, A. Vogelgsang, and R. Kathner, Photonik 1, 42 (2004).

Davis, J.

Di Fabrizio, E.

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fürhapter, S.

S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 146, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Opt. Express 16, 19821 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 146, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kathner, R.

R. Danz, A. Vogelgsang, and R. Kathner, Photonik 1, 42 (2004).

Kaulich, B.

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, K. G.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lew, M.

X. Cui, M. Lew, and C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Opt. Express 16, 19821 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 146, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nomarski, G.

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9S (1955).

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Opt. Express 16, 19821 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 146, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanato, F.

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, N. I.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Susini, J.

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vogelgsang, A.

R. Danz, A. Vogelgsang, and R. Kathner, Photonik 1, 42 (2004).

Vogt, U.

von Hofsten, O.

Wilhein, T.

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

X. Cui, M. Lew, and C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. (1)

S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, C. Maurer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 146, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. Cui, M. Lew, and C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, J. Microsc. 214, 7 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Radium (1)

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9S (1955).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Danz, A. Vogelgsang, and R. Kathner, Photonik 1, 42 (2004).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for the measurements. D, rotating diffuser in front focal plane of the condenser; C, condenser; S, sample; O, objective; SLM, spatial light modulator; L, imaging lens; CCD, camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of a polystyrene bead recorded using one or two parallel gratings. For each image, a sample of the inner part of the Fourier plane mask is shown along with an intensity plot taken from a vertical cut through the center of the image. (a) Bright field image; (b) experimental DIC image; (c) simulated DIC image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DIC images recorded using independent dual gratings. (a) Bead, vertical displacement; (b) bead, horizontal displacement; (c) blood cells and beads, vertical displacement; (d) blood cells and beads, horizontal displacement.

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