Abstract

We present a way of guiding light to planar surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by using evanescent-wave coupling. Using nanostructured chalcogenide glass-based SERS substrates, we experimentally show the incident-angle dependence of plasmon resonances of the SERS substrates, demonstrating strong resonances at large incident angles. This allows the evanescent-wave excitation of SERS substrates through tapered optical fibers. Experiments show that fiber-taper-excited SERS substrates exhibit a significant enhancement of the Raman spectra of Rhodamine-6G analyte molecules. This configuration forms the basis of fiber-optic-based, reproducible, highly compact, and sensitive SERS systems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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A. Lucotti and G. Zerbi, Sens. Actuators B 121, 356 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 1751 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, Nano Lett. 5, 2262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 109, 11279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 10549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

R. A. Watts, J. B. Harris, A. P. Hibbins, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Samples, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 43, 1351 (1996).

1994

A. Nemetz, U. Fernandez, and W. Knoll, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1582 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M. E.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, Nano Lett. 5, 2262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, G. A.

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 1751 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, Nano Lett. 5, 2262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, Nano Lett. 5, 2262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

Brambilla, G.

Bustos, F.

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, G.

Chiang, K. S.

L. Su, K. S. Chiang, and C. Lu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cintra, S.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, Nano Lett. 5, 2262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dieringer, J. A.

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 109, 11279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dintinger, J.

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Elliott, S. R.

Emery, S. R.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, U.

A. Nemetz, U. Fernandez, and W. Knoll, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1582 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

Freeman, D.

Grillet, C.

Harris, J. B.

R. A. Watts, J. B. Harris, A. P. Hibbins, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Samples, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 43, 1351 (1996).

Haynes, C. L.

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 10549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hibbins, A. P.

R. A. Watts, J. B. Harris, A. P. Hibbins, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Samples, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 43, 1351 (1996).

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, F.

Jensen, T. R.

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 10549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kelf, T. A.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, Nano Lett. 5, 2262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, S.

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Knoll, W.

A. Nemetz, U. Fernandez, and W. Knoll, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1582 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

L. Su, K. S. Chiang, and C. Lu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lucotti, A.

A. Lucotti and G. Zerbi, Sens. Actuators B 121, 356 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davis, B.

Madden, S.

Magi, E. C.

Malinsky, M. D.

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 10549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, A. D.

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 109, 11279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moore, D. S.

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 1751 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, D. J.

Nemetz, A.

A. Nemetz, U. Fernandez, and W. Knoll, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1582 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S. M.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preist, T. W.

R. A. Watts, J. B. Harris, A. P. Hibbins, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Samples, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 43, 1351 (1996).

Richardson, D. J.

Rowlands, C. J.

Russell, A. E.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, Nano Lett. 5, 2262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S.

Samples, J. R.

R. A. Watts, J. B. Harris, A. P. Hibbins, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Samples, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 43, 1351 (1996).

Smith, C.

Stokes, D. L.

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

L. Su, C. J. Rowlands, and S. R. Elliott, Opt. Lett. 34, 1645 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Su, K. S. Chiang, and C. Lu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, Y.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, Nano Lett. 5, 2262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 109, 11279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 10549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vo-Dinh, T.

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Watts, R. A.

R. A. Watts, J. B. Harris, A. P. Hibbins, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Samples, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 43, 1351 (1996).

Young, M. A.

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 109, 11279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zerbi, G.

A. Lucotti and G. Zerbi, Sens. Actuators B 121, 356 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

G. A. Baker and D. S. Moore, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 1751 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

L. Su, K. S. Chiang, and C. Lu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Nemetz, U. Fernandez, and W. Knoll, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1582 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

R. A. Watts, J. B. Harris, A. P. Hibbins, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Samples, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 43, 1351 (1996).

J. Phys. Chem.

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 109, 11279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Jensen, M. D. Malinsky, C. L. Haynes, and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 10549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. J. Baumberg, T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, Nano Lett. 5, 2262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B

A. Lucotti and G. Zerbi, Sens. Actuators B 121, 356 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Stokes and T. Vo-Dinh, Sens. Actuators B 69, 28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) images of a ChG-based SERS substrate at different magnifications. (b) Angle-resolved absorption spectra of the ChG-based SERS substrate shown in (a). Bright regions correspond to strong absorptions induced by plasmon resonances. Lines at 15802.8 cm 1 correspond to the reference He–Ne laser line in the Fourier-transform IR (FT-IR) spectrometer. (c) Absorption spectra of the SERS substrate shown in (a), measured at different angles of incidence θ [cuts through (b)].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Illustration of an optical-fiber taper; L is the total fiber taper length, and d is the diameter of the taper waist (inset, a microscope image of an actual 5 μ m diameter optical-fiber taper). (b) Schematic configuration of the fiber-taper-coupled SERS substrate. (c) Real-time picture for laser light guided through the optical-fiber taper and the evanescent-wave excited surface plasmons in the SERS substrate. (d) Raman spectra obtained with A, fiber-taper-coupled SERS substrate; B, conventional free-space laser-focusing method; and C, fiber-taper on a smooth gold surface, where arrows indicate R6G vibrational modes. (For spectra A, B, and C, the excitation lasers are operated at 1064 nm with an output power of 100 mW .)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra of R6G measured with the fiber-taper-coupled SERS substrates by employing different tapers: (a) L = 6 mm , d = 15 μ m ; (b) L = 10 mm , d = 10 μ m ; (c) L = 12 mm , d = 5 μ m ; (d) L = 14 mm , d = 2 μ m . [For spectra (a)–(d), excitation laser power = 100 mW ].

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