Abstract

Improving the resolution in x-ray microscopes is of high priority to enable future applications in nanoscience. However, high-resolution zone-plate optics often have low efficiency, which makes implementation in laboratory microscopes difficult. We present a laboratory x-ray microscope based on a compound zone plate. The compound zone plate utilizes multiple diffraction orders to achieve high resolution while maintaining reasonable efficiency. We analyze the illumination conditions necessary for this type of optics in order to suppress stray light and demonstrate microscopic imaging resolving 25nm features.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., X-ray Microscopy (The Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Benk, K. Bergmann, D. Schäfer, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Lett. 33, 2359 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), p. 337.
  6. G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, Opt. Acta 31, 403 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, Opt. Acta 31, 403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aristov, V.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), p. 337.

Benk, M.

Bergmann, K.

Bertilson, M.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Chao, W.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.-R.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, J.

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B. D.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemberg, O.

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Holmberg, A.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Ishikawa, T.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Isoyan, A.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, G. A.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondratenkov, M.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuyumchyan, A.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liang, K. S.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindblom, M.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Michette, A. G.

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, Opt. Acta 31, 403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, S.

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, D.

Shulakov, E.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, M. J.

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, Opt. Acta 31, 403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-F.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Souvorov, A.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stollberg, H.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takman, P. A. C.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Tamasaku, K.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, M.-T.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thieme, J.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Trouni, K.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, U.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

von Hofsten, O.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Wilhein, T.

Yabashi, M.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G.-C.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Acta (1)

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, Opt. Acta 31, 403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), p. 337.

S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., X-ray Microscopy (The Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of a compound zone plate. The inner first order and outer third order combine in the focus to yield a high NA. The inner and outer parts have equal outermost zone width, and the diameter of the inner part is one third of the entire zone plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the microscope arrangement when using a compound zone plate. The order blocker (OB) is placed in the outer part’s first-order focal plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results showing the stray-light simulations for a compound zone plate: (a) situation without a large central stop and order-blocker, (b) using the larger central stop, (c) using the large central stop and the order blocker, where the central area of the detector is stray-light-free.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of Au gratings taken with the laboratory soft x-ray microscope: (a) the compound zone plate resolves the (left) 25 nm lines and (right) 30 nm lines, (b) image using a conventional zone plate with 50 nm outermost zone width.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image of a Siemens star using the compound zone plate. The order blocker is imaged by the outer part’s first order. The stray light outside the OB is significant, and the field-of-view is limited to about 5 μ m .

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