Abstract

Improving the resolution in x-ray microscopes is of high priority to enable future applications in nanoscience. However, high-resolution zone-plate optics often have low efficiency, which makes implementation in laboratory microscopes difficult. We present a laboratory x-ray microscope based on a compound zone plate. The compound zone plate utilizes multiple diffraction orders to achieve high resolution while maintaining reasonable efficiency. We analyze the illumination conditions necessary for this type of optics in order to suppress stray light and demonstrate microscopic imaging resolving 25 nm features.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., X-ray Microscopy (The Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006).
  2. W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Benk, K. Bergmann, D. Schäfer, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Lett. 33, 2359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), p. 337.
  6. G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, Opt. Acta 31, 403 (1984).
  8. A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, Opt. Acta 31, 403 (1984).

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aristov, V.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), p. 337.

Benk, M.

Bergmann, K.

Bertilson, M.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Chao, W.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.-R.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, J.

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B. D.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hemberg, O.

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Holmberg, A.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Ishikawa, T.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Isoyan, A.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, G. A.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenkov, M.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuyumchyan, A.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liang, K. S.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lindblom, M.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Michette, A. G.

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, Opt. Acta 31, 403 (1984).

Rehbein, S.

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, D.

Shulakov, E.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, M. J.

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, Opt. Acta 31, 403 (1984).

Snigirev, A.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-F.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Souvorov, A.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stollberg, H.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takman, P. A. C.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Tamasaku, K.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, M.-T.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thieme, J.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Trouni, K.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, U.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

von Hofsten, O.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

Wilhein, T.

Yabashi, M.

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G.-C.

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G.-C. Yin, Y.-F. Song, M.-T. Tang, F.-R. Chen, and K. S. Liang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. de Groot, O. Hemberg, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

M. J. Simpson and A. G. Michette, Opt. Acta 31, 403 (1984).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Kuyumchyan, A. Isoyan, E. Shulakov, V. Aristov, M. Kondratenkov, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Trouni, Proc. SPIE 4783, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, J. Thieme, M. Lindblom, A. Holmberg, P. A. C. Takman, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, presented at the 9th International Conference on x-ray Microscopy, Zürich, Switzerland, July 21-25 2008.

S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., X-ray Microscopy (The Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006).

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), p. 337.

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