Abstract

The proposed method exploits the spectral properties of tissue hemoglobin for the purpose of 3D image reconstruction of quantum dot reporter probes inside scattering tissue. It advances fluorescence tomography in such way that only a single light source with tunable wavelength selection is required for fluorescence stimulation and image reconstruction. Numerical results suggest that current planar surface imaging technology could easily be retrofitted for performing fluorescence tomography without the use of elaborate source–detector multiplexing.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18, 17 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. A. Prahl, http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/index.html.
  4. S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, J. Comp. Physics 220, 441 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18, 17 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

V. Ntziachristos, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, J. Comp. Physics 220, 441 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentolila, L. A.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, F.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doose, S.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragulescu-Andrasi, A.

J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18, 17 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gheysens, O.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klose, A. D.

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, J. Comp. Physics 220, 441 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, E. W.

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, J. Comp. Physics 220, 441 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. J.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michalet, X.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, M. R.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinaud, F. F.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

S. A. Prahl, http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/index.html.

Rao, J.

J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18, 17 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, J. H.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaresan, G.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsay, J. M.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, S.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, A. M.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J. C.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.-H.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, H.

J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18, 17 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

BMC Biotechnol. (1)

S. Lin, X. Xie, M. R. Patel, Y.-H. Yang, Z. Li, F. Cao, O. Gheysens, Y. Zhang, S. S. Gambhir, J. H. Rao, and J. C. Wu, BMC Biotechnol. 7, 67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 18, 17 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Physics (1)

A. D. Klose and E. W. Larsen, J. Comp. Physics 220, 441 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. A. Prahl, http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/index.html.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption spectrum of (oxy-)hemoglobin [3]. (b) Schematic of absorption and emission spectrum of CdTe quantum dots (QTracker 705, Invitrogen) [4]. The gray-shaded area in (b) is used by HEFT for fluorescence stimulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Excitation field Φ x ( r , λ ) as a function of λ along the z-axis of a 2 - cm -wide tissue slab with excitation source located at z = 0 . The spectral properties ( μ a , μ s ) are similar to that of bowel tissue. QDs at locations F and G (see Fig. 3) experience different Φ x ( r , λ l ) for light emission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of HEFT with A, white-light source for fluorescence stimulation of QDs. B, wavelength selective filter for excitation; C, cutoff filter for fluorescence; D, optical detector; E, tissue model; with two fluorescent QD targets at depths (F) z = 0.8 cm and (G) z = 1.2 cm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated J + of fluorescence light at the detector side of the tissue model (Fig. 3, D) for different excitation wavelengths λ l .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image reconstructions of relative QD concentration for different depths z measured from the top plane of the tissue model. Reconstructions were performed for different sets of λ l . L = 1 , 660 nm ; L = 3 ; 660 640 nm ; L = 9 ; 660 580 nm . Δ μ : μ a for image reconstruction was altered by 30% from the original μ a .

Equations (3)

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J + ( r d ) = F [ Φ x ( r , r s ) η ϵ c ( r ) ] .
J + ( r d ) = F [ Φ x ( r , λ ) η ϵ ( λ ) c ( r ) ] .
J ̂ + = A c ̂ ,

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