Abstract

Optical second-harmonic generation, thanks to its coherent nature, is a suitable signal for interferometric measurements such as digital holography, a well-established imaging technique that allows recovery of complex diffraction wave fields from which it is possible to extract both amplitude-contrast and quantitative phase images. Here, we report on a multifunctional form of microscopy, namely, second-harmonic generation digital holographic microscopy. As a proof of concept, we have investigated the second-harmonic signal generated at the glass/air interface of a microscope slide under focused femtosecond laser illumination, and we propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a representation and interpretation of the recovered phase. In this simple yet educative case study, we observe that the second harmonic is generated by the axial component of the incident field polarization.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

2008

Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Opt. 47, A103 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kühn, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Marian, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, J. Microsc. 225, 156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2004

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, Biophys. J. 86, 3914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Juptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1997

1962

1959

E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Aspert, N.

Blanchard-Desce, M.

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourquin, S.

Centurion, M.

Charrière, F.

J. Kühn, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Marian, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, J. Microsc. 225, 156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, E. Cuche, A. Marian, F. Charrière, S. Bourquin, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. Y.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, Biophys. J. 86, 3914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, Biophys. J. 86, 3914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chern, G. W.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, Biophys. J. 86, 3914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S. W.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, Biophys. J. 86, 3914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

J. Kühn, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Marian, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, J. Microsc. 225, 156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, E. Cuche, A. Marian, F. Charrière, S. Bourquin, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. J. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, Opt. Lett. 30, 468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Depeursinge, C.

Dombeck, D. A.

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, Y.

J. Kühn, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. J. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, Opt. Lett. 30, 468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grange, R.

Gratton, E.

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

Hsieh, C.-L.

Hyman, B. T.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juptner, W. P. O.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Juptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

König, K.

Kühn, J.

J. Kühn, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Marian, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, J. Microsc. 225, 156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, E. Cuche, A. Marian, F. Charrière, S. Bourquin, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E. N.

Lin, B. L.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, Biophys. J. 86, 3914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P. J.

Mantulin, W. W.

Marian, A.

Marquet, P.

Montfort, F.

J. Kühn, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Marian, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, J. Microsc. 225, 156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, E. Cuche, A. Marian, F. Charrière, S. Bourquin, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. Y.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

Psaltis, D.

Pu, Y.

Rappaz, B.

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Juptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

So, P. T. C.

Sun, C. K.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, Biophys. J. 86, 3914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. H.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, Biophys. J. 86, 3914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Upatnieks, J.

Webb, W. W.

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, Biophys. J. 86, 3914 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc.

A. Marian, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, J. Microsc. 225, 156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci.

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Meas. Sci. Technol.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Juptner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kühn, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup schematics: BS, beam splitter; BE, beam expander with pinhole-based spatial filtering; C, condenser lens; S, specimen; MO, microscope objective; M, mirror; FL, field lens; F, wavelength-selective filter; L, lens; BBO, frequency doubler β-barium borate crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The x-polarized Gaussian field E inc of waist w 0 is focused by a lens of relative aperture f # = f 2 w 0 on the second interface of a glass slide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental amplitude and (b) relative phase of the optical second-harmonic signal generated at the interface, as retrieved by digital holographic microscopy. (c) Square root of the experimental SHG amplitude for direct comparison with incident, fundamental field amplitude of Fig. 4c.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Respectively displayed in (a), (b), and (c) are the amplitudes of the x-, y-, and z-polarized components in the focal plane of a linearly x-polarized Gaussian field focused by a f 0.8 lens, in air. Amplitudes in (b) and (c) have been respectively scaled by 82 × and 10 × . The corresponding phases are displayed in (d), (e), and (f).

Equations (1)

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I H ( x , y ) = O O * + R R * + O R * + R O * ,

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