Abstract

The resolution of conventional surface-plasmon-resonance (SPR) imaging has been limited by the diffraction nature of light. A wide-field extended-resolution optical imaging technique, standing-wave SPR fluorescence (SW-SPRF) microscopy, has been developed. Based on evanescent SPR standing waves, SW-SPRF provides lateral resolution approaching 100nm and offers the advantages of significant signal enhancement and background-noise reduction. SW-SPRF has the potential for sensitive biomolecular detection, nanoscale imaging, and lithographic applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. Huang, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Fiolka, M. Beck, and A. Stemmer, Opt. Lett. 33, 1629 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Tang, E. Chung, Y.-H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Express 15, 4634 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chung, D. Kim, Y. Cui, Y.-H. Kim, and P. T. C. So, Biophys. J. 93, 1747 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. Borejdo, N. Calander, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, Opt. Express 14, 7878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Burghadt, J. E. Charlesworth, M. F. Halstead, J. E. Tarara, and J. Ajtai, Biophys. J. 90, 4662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enderlein and T. Ruckstuhl, Opt. Express 13, 8855 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajtai, J.

T. P. Burghadt, J. E. Charlesworth, M. F. Halstead, J. E. Tarara, and J. Ajtai, Biophys. J. 90, 4662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Borejdo, J.

J. Borejdo, N. Calander, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, Opt. Express 14, 7878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burghadt, T. P.

T. P. Burghadt, J. E. Charlesworth, M. F. Halstead, J. E. Tarara, and J. Ajtai, Biophys. J. 90, 4662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Calander, N.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Borejdo, N. Calander, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, Opt. Express 14, 7878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlesworth, J. E.

T. P. Burghadt, J. E. Charlesworth, M. F. Halstead, J. E. Tarara, and J. Ajtai, Biophys. J. 90, 4662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, E.

Cui, Y.

E. Chung, D. Kim, Y. Cui, Y.-H. Kim, and P. T. C. So, Biophys. J. 93, 1747 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. Huang, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C. Y.

Durant, S.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enderlein, J.

Fang, N.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiolka, R.

Gryczynski, I.

J. Borejdo, N. Calander, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, Opt. Express 14, 7878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, Z.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Borejdo, N. Calander, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, Opt. Express 14, 7878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halstead, M. F.

T. P. Burghadt, J. E. Charlesworth, M. F. Halstead, J. E. Tarara, and J. Ajtai, Biophys. J. 90, 4662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. Huang, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

E. Chung, D. Kim, Y. Cui, Y.-H. Kim, and P. T. C. So, Biophys. J. 93, 1747 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-H.

Kwon, H. S.

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. S.

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muthu, P.

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Ruckstuhl, T.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. Huang, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2008).
[CrossRef]

So, P. T. C.

Stemmer, A.

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, W. T.

Tarara, J. E.

T. P. Burghadt, J. E. Charlesworth, M. F. Halstead, J. E. Tarara, and J. Ajtai, Biophys. J. 90, 4662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q. H.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (3)

J. Borejdo, Z. Gryczynski, N. Calander, P. Muthu, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 91, 2626 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Burghadt, J. E. Charlesworth, M. F. Halstead, J. E. Tarara, and J. Ajtai, Biophys. J. 90, 4662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Chung, D. Kim, Y. Cui, Y.-H. Kim, and P. T. C. So, Biophys. J. 93, 1747 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (2)

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 7, 403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. Fang, H. S. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. Huang, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of SW-SPRF microscopy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contrast of p-polarized evanescent standing waves with immersion medium refractive index 1.515 and three different sample media–air ( n = 1.0 ) , water ( n = 1.33 ) , and cellular cytoplasm ( n 1.38 ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extended-resolution imaging with SW-SPRF microscopy in vertical direction: (a1) original SPRF image with doughnut-shape PSF, (b1) deconvolved SPRF image, (c1) SW-SPRF image after applying the SW-TIRF algorithm on three deconvolved SPRF images, (d1) SW-SPRF image with linear deconvolution to reduce side lobes; (a2)–(d2) comparison of PSF profiles of various imaging methods at a selected region of interest (ROI). Scale bar, 2 μ m ; inset size, 1.3 μ m across.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of various imaging modes: (a)–(d) images of fluorescent beads under different imaging conditions with the same incident angle, excitation intensity, and exposure time. Scale bar, 2 μ m ; inset, 2.5 μ m across. (e) Comparison of intensity of fluorescent beads under various imaging modes ( n = 48 each, standard error).

Equations (1)

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I SW - SPRF = 2 | t p ( θ ) | 2 exp ( z δ ) ( 2 sin 2 θ β 2 ) × [ 1 ( β 2 2 sin 2 θ β 2 ) cos ( 2 k x sin θ ) ] ,

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