Ultrahigh sensitivity detection of particles in solution implies the ability to detect at very low concentrations. At the single-particle level, this is achieved through fluorescence detection, reaching down to single fluorophores. Sensitivity may also be improved by concentrating many particles into a compact cluster, thus “integrating” the signal of many particles. We show how both ways can be combined on an optofluidic chip in a fully planar geometry utilizing counterpropagating liquid-core waveguide modes to form a loss-based optical trap. This all-optical concentrator can increase the concentration of particles by more than 2 orders of magnitude and also provides a convenient, nondispersive means of transport for particle ensembles.
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