Abstract

We demonstrate Zernike phase contrast in a compact soft x-ray microscope using a single-element optic. The optic is a combined imaging zone plate and a Zernike phase plate and does not require any additional alignment or components. Contrast is increased and inversed in an image of a test object using the Zernike zone plate. This type of optic may be implemented into any existing x-ray microscope where phase contrast is of interest.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Weiss, G. Schneider, S. Vogt, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 1308 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.Thieme, G.Schmahl, D.Rudolph, and E.Umbach, eds., X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 1998).
  4. P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Schneider, Ultramicroscopy 75, 85 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, M. Lindblom, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. XRadia Inc., http://xradia.com/Products/nanoxct.html(2008).
  9. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Jena) 97, 181 (1994).
  10. U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, 79 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Zernike, Physica (Utrecht) 9, 686 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. G. Lipson, H. Lipson, and D. S. Tannhauser, Optical Physics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 348.
  13. A. H. Bennett, H. Jupnik, H. Osterberg, and O. W. Richards, Phase Microscopy, (Wiley, 1951).
  14. A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. von Hofsten, P. A. C. Takman, and U. Vogt, Ultramicroscopy 107, 604 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Sakdinawatt and Y. Liu, Opt. Express 16, 1559 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, M. Lindblom, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakdinawatt and Y. Liu, Opt. Express 16, 1559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

O. von Hofsten, P. A. C. Takman, and U. Vogt, Ultramicroscopy 107, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, 79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, S. Vogt, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Schneider, Ultramicroscopy 75, 85 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Jena) 97, 181 (1994).

1942 (1)

F. Zernike, Physica (Utrecht) 9, 686 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, A. H.

A. H. Bennett, H. Jupnik, H. Osterberg, and O. W. Richards, Phase Microscopy, (Wiley, 1951).

Bertilson, M.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, M. Lindblom, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guttmann, P.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, S. Vogt, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Jena) 97, 181 (1994).

Hambach, D.

U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, 79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B. D.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, H. M.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, M. Lindblom, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofsten, O. von

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, M. Lindblom, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holmberg, A.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, G. A.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jupnik, H.

A. H. Bennett, H. Jupnik, H. Osterberg, and O. W. Richards, Phase Microscopy, (Wiley, 1951).

Kirz, J.

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindblom, M.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, M. Lindblom, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, H.

S. G. Lipson, H. Lipson, and D. S. Tannhauser, Optical Physics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 348.

Lipson, S. G.

S. G. Lipson, H. Lipson, and D. S. Tannhauser, Optical Physics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 348.

Liu, Y.

Ludwig, W.

U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, 79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, M. A.

U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, 79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neuhausler, U.

U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, 79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, B.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, S. Vogt, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Jena) 97, 181 (1994).

Osterberg, H.

A. H. Bennett, H. Jupnik, H. Osterberg, and O. W. Richards, Phase Microscopy, (Wiley, 1951).

Rehbein, S.

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richards, O. W.

A. H. Bennett, H. Jupnik, H. Osterberg, and O. W. Richards, Phase Microscopy, (Wiley, 1951).

Rudolph, D.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, S. Vogt, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Jena) 97, 181 (1994).

Sakdinawatt, A.

Schmahl, G.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, S. Vogt, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Jena) 97, 181 (1994).

Schneider, G.

U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, 79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, S. Vogt, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, Ultramicroscopy 75, 85 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Jena) 97, 181 (1994).

Stollberg, H.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takman, P. A. C.

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. von Hofsten, P. A. C. Takman, and U. Vogt, Ultramicroscopy 107, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tannhauser, D. S.

S. G. Lipson, H. Lipson, and D. S. Tannhauser, Optical Physics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 348.

Vogt, S.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, S. Vogt, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, U.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, M. Lindblom, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. von Hofsten, P. A. C. Takman, and U. Vogt, Ultramicroscopy 107, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Hofsten, O.

O. von Hofsten, P. A. C. Takman, and U. Vogt, Ultramicroscopy 107, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, D.

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, S. Vogt, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, M. Lindblom, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, Physica (Utrecht) 9, 686 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Zschech, E.

U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, 79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, M. Lindblom, T. Wilhein, H. M. Hertz, and U. Vogt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

P. A. C. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, J. Microsc. 226, 175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D (1)

U. Neuhausler, G. Schneider, W. Ludwig, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, and D. Hambach, J. Phys. D 36, 79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

A. Holmberg, S. Rehbein, and H. M. Hertz, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

D. Weiss, G. Schneider, S. Vogt, P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Optik (Jena) (1)

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Jena) 97, 181 (1994).

Physica (Utrecht) (1)

F. Zernike, Physica (Utrecht) 9, 686 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Q. Rev. Biophys. (1)

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

G. Schneider, Ultramicroscopy 75, 85 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. von Hofsten, P. A. C. Takman, and U. Vogt, Ultramicroscopy 107, 604 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

XRadia Inc., http://xradia.com/Products/nanoxct.html(2008).

J.Thieme, G.Schmahl, D.Rudolph, and E.Umbach, eds., X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 1998).

S. G. Lipson, H. Lipson, and D. S. Tannhauser, Optical Physics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 348.

A. H. Bennett, H. Jupnik, H. Osterberg, and O. W. Richards, Phase Microscopy, (Wiley, 1951).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phasor diagrams of various samples and optics. (top) The situation when using a normal zone plate for three types of samples. (bottom) The same samples when using Zernike phase contrast. The contrast, i.e., the difference in magnitude between the particle ( P ) wave and the background ( B ) , has changed in comparison with the diagrams above. The D wave is the diffracted wave, given by subtracting the B from the P wave.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(top) Illustration of the implementation of Zernike phase contrast in our microscope. The zones of the ZZP that are directly illuminated by the condenser are phase shifted with respect to the rest of the optic. (bottom) Detail of SEM image of the ZZP. The phase-shifted zones are marked by the dashed area and the arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of 80 nm nickel lines using a normal zone plate (top left) and using the Zernike zone plate (ZZP, top right). Image profiles are compared in the lower plot. The contrast is inverted and increased when using the ZZP.

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