Abstract

We derive closed expressions for the Casimir-Polder potential between metal nanoparticles as well as for the light-induced interaction owing to the gradient force. Within the validity of the dipole approximation, the maximum interaction energy turns out to be proportional to the plasma frequency, and it is comparable to the thermal energy at T=300 K. On the other hand, the light-induced interaction depends linearly on the light intensity, and only for strongly focused laser beams (10–100 mW/μm2) does it become comparable in strength to the Casimir-Polder interaction.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
  2. L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Xu and M. Käll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 246802 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).
  7. R. Quidant, A. S. Zelenina, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Appl. Phys. A 89, 233 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. S. Zelenina, R. Quidant, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Opt. Lett. 32, 1156 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Fuchs and F. Claro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3280 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. J. Hallock, P. L. Redmond, and L. E. Brus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 1280 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. X. Phuoc, Opt. Commun. 245, 27 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Chu and D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 127401 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. P. Craig and Y. Thirunamachandran, Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic, 1984).
  14. H. B. Casimir and D. Polder, Phys. Rev. 73, 360 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. M. Lifshitz and L. P. Pitaevskii, Statistical Physics, Part 2, Vol. 9 of Course of Theoretical Physics (Pergamon, 1980), Chap. VIII.
  16. C. Henkel, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Opt. A 4, S109 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Mahanty and B. W. Ninham, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6157 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. Quidant, A. S. Zelenina, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Appl. Phys. A 89, 233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zelenina, R. Quidant, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Opt. Lett. 32, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Chu and D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 127401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. J. Hallock, P. L. Redmond, and L. E. Brus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 1280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Phuoc, Opt. Commun. 245, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. Fuchs and F. Claro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).

2002 (3)

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Opt. A 4, S109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu and M. Käll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. Mahanty and B. W. Ninham, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6157 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

H. B. Casimir and D. Polder, Phys. Rev. 73, 360 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Amarie, D.

E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).

Bian, R. X.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L. E.

A. J. Hallock, P. L. Redmond, and L. E. Brus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 1280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Casimir, H. B.

H. B. Casimir and D. Polder, Phys. Rev. 73, 360 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Chaumet, P. C.

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P.

P. Chu and D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 127401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Claro, F.

R. Fuchs and F. Claro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Craig, D. P.

D. P. Craig and Y. Thirunamachandran, Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic, 1984).

Dragnea, B.

E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).

Fuchs, R.

R. Fuchs and F. Claro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Opt. A 4, S109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hallock, A. J.

A. J. Hallock, P. L. Redmond, and L. E. Brus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 1280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

Henkel, C.

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Opt. A 4, S109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, S. C.

E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).

Joulain, K.

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Opt. A 4, S109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

H. Xu and M. Käll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, E.-S.

E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).

Lifshitz, E. M.

E. M. Lifshitz and L. P. Pitaevskii, Statistical Physics, Part 2, Vol. 9 of Course of Theoretical Physics (Pergamon, 1980), Chap. VIII.

Mahanty, J.

J. Mahanty and B. W. Ninham, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6157 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mills, D. L.

P. Chu and D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 127401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mulet, J.-P.

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Opt. A 4, S109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, N.

A. S. Zelenina, R. Quidant, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Opt. Lett. 32, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Quidant, A. S. Zelenina, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Appl. Phys. A 89, 233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ninham, B. W.

J. Mahanty and B. W. Ninham, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6157 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Onuta, T.-D.

E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).

Phuoc, T. X.

T. X. Phuoc, Opt. Commun. 245, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pitaevskii, L. P.

E. M. Lifshitz and L. P. Pitaevskii, Statistical Physics, Part 2, Vol. 9 of Course of Theoretical Physics (Pergamon, 1980), Chap. VIII.

Polder, D.

H. B. Casimir and D. Polder, Phys. Rev. 73, 360 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Potyrailo, R.

E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).

Quidant, R.

R. Quidant, A. S. Zelenina, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Appl. Phys. A 89, 233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zelenina, R. Quidant, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Opt. Lett. 32, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rahmani, A.

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Redmond, P. L.

A. J. Hallock, P. L. Redmond, and L. E. Brus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 1280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaich, W.

E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).

Stein, B.

E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).

Thirunamachandran, Y.

D. P. Craig and Y. Thirunamachandran, Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic, 1984).

Xie, X. S.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Xu and M. Käll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zelenina, A. S.

R. Quidant, A. S. Zelenina, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Appl. Phys. A 89, 233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zelenina, R. Quidant, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Opt. Lett. 32, 1156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

R. Quidant, A. S. Zelenina, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Appl. Phys. A 89, 233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Fuchs and F. Claro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Mahanty and B. W. Ninham, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 6157 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

C. Henkel, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Opt. A 4, S109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

E.-S. Kwak, T.-D. Onuta, D. Amarie, R. Potyrailo, B. Stein, S. C. Jacobson, W. Schaich, and B. Dragnea, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 13607 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. X. Phuoc, Opt. Commun. 245, 27 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. B. Casimir and D. Polder, Phys. Rev. 73, 360 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

P. Chu and D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 127401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and N. Nieto-Vesperinas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu and M. Käll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

A. J. Hallock, P. L. Redmond, and L. E. Brus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 1280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. P. Craig and Y. Thirunamachandran, Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic, 1984).

E. M. Lifshitz and L. P. Pitaevskii, Statistical Physics, Part 2, Vol. 9 of Course of Theoretical Physics (Pergamon, 1980), Chap. VIII.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

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