Abstract

We demonstrate a new silicon photonic wire waveguide evanescent field (PWEF) sensor that exploits the strong evanescent field of the transverse magnetic mode of this high-index-contrast, submicrometer-dimension waveguide. High sensitivity is achieved by using a 2mm long double-spiral waveguide structure that fits within a compact circular area of 150μm diameter, facilitating compatibility with commercial spotting apparatus and the fabrication of densely spaced sensor arrays. By incorporating the PWEF sensor element into a balanced waveguide Mach–Zehnder interferometer circuit, a minimum detectable mass of 10fg of streptavidin protein is demonstrated with near temperature-independent response.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, and P. Cheben, Proc. SPIE 6477, 647718 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, J. Opt. A 8, S561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Voros, Biophys. J. 87, 553 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, Nanotechnology 14, 907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Elwing, Biomaterials 19, 397 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

W. Lukosz, Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials

H. Elwing, Biomaterials 19, 397 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

J. Voros, Biophys. J. 87, 553 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

W. Lukosz, Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, J. Opt. A 8, S561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, Nanotechnology 14, 907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, and P. Cheben, Proc. SPIE 6477, 647718 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Infrared camera image of the folded PWEF sensor illuminated with guided light of wavelength 1550 nm . (b) Close-up of a double-spiral PWEF sensor waveguide used in this work. The dashed outlines indicate the position of the sensor windows.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensor phase response as the analyte fluid refractive index was increased in steps, using calibrated sucrose solutions for a 2 mm long spiral sensor element. The dashed curve shows the calculated phase response based on waveguide mode effective index calculations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MZI phase response to the adsorption of streptavidin to the biotinylated sensor surface. Inset, measured power transmitted through the PWEF sensor during the measurement.

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