Abstract

Surface-plasmon-resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used in biological, chemical, medical, and environmental sensing. SPR sensors supporting two surface-plasmon modes can differentiate surface binding interactions from bulk index changes at a single sensing location. We present a new approach to dual-mode SPR sensing that offers improved differentiation between surface and bulk effects. By using an angular interrogation, both long- and short-range surface plasmons are simultaneously excited at the same location and wavelength but at different angles. Initial experiments indicate that angular interrogation offers at least a factor of 3.6 improvement in surface and bulk cross-sensitivity compared to wavelength-interrogated dual-mode SPR sensors.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. R. Donipudi, S. Pochiraju, and J. T. Hastings, Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (2006).
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  5. D. Sarid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendlowitz, and N. S. Subramanian, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 31, 1982 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 87th ed.,D.R.Lide, ed. (CRC Press, 2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. T. Hastings, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 170 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. T. Hastings, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

R. Slavik, J. Homola, and H. Vaisocherova, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 932 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendlowitz, and N. S. Subramanian, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 31, 1982 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. Sarid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

J. T. Hastings, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Slavik, J. Homola, and H. Vaisocherova, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 932 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendlowitz, and N. S. Subramanian, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 31, 1982 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Sarid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Donipudi, S. Pochiraju, and J. T. Hastings, Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (2006).

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 87th ed.,D.R.Lide, ed. (CRC Press, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of field profiles for dual-mode SPR sensors. (a) Electric field (component normal to the metal surface) profiles for the LRSP and SRSP excited at 800 nm in an angular interrogation configuration. Note the enhanced field at the surface for the SRSP and the deeper penetration of the field into the solution for the LRSP. (b) Electric field profiles for the LRSP and SRSP modes in a wavelength interrogation configuration [1, 2, 3]. Angular interrogation configuration produces greater differentiation in the field profiles and thus reduced cross sensitivity between surface and bulk effects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical system for angular interrogation of dual-mode SPR sensors. Optical system must be designed to measure a broader range of angles (15°) than typical single-mode SPR systems.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental and theoretical (fit) angular reflection spectra of a dual-mode SPR sensor using an 800 nm wavelength light. Theoretical fit indicates that the Teflon AF layer is 520 nm thick and the gold layer is 62 nm thick.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensor response to streptavidin binding on the gold surface. (a), (b) Resonance angle versus time for LRSP and SPSP modes. (c), (d) Bulk refractive index and relative surface binding thickness change calculated from (a) and (b). Solutions are (1) 50 mM Tris buffer with (2) 1% glycerol, or (3) streptavidin added.

Equations (4)

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Δ θ LR = S S LR Δ d + S B LR Δ n B ,
Δ θ SR = S S SR Δ d + S B SR Δ n B ,
Δ d = Δ θ LR S B LR Δ θ SR S B SR S S LR S B LR S S SR S B SR ,
Δ n B = Δ θ LR S S LR Δ θ SR S S SR S B LR S S LR S B SR S S SR .

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