Abstract

We demonstrate a Raman-pumped Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber laser and optical coherence tomography imaging with this source. The wavelength sweep range of only 30nm centered around 1550nm results in limited axial resolution, hence a nonbiological sample is imaged. An output power of 1.9mW was achieved at a sweep rate of 66kHz and a maximum ranging depth of 2.5cm. Roll-off characteristics are found to be similar to FDML lasers with semiconductor optical amplifiers as gain media. The application of Raman gain also enables unperturbed cavity ring-down experiments in FDML lasers for the first time, providing direct access to the photon lifetime in the laser cavity. Good agreement with nonswept cw operation is proof of the stationary operation of FDML lasers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 274-328.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

2006

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

2001

P. C. Reeves-Hall and J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 37, 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Commun. 182, 403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. J. A. Thijs, L. F. Tiemeijer, J. J. M. Binsma, and T. Vandongen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

N. A. Olsson and J. Hegarty, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1973

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 274-328.

Armstrong, J. J.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Binsma, J. J. M.

P. J. A. Thijs, L. F. Tiemeijer, J. J. M. Binsma, and T. Vandongen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chernikov, S. V.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Commun. 182, 403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

Doutte, A.

Eastwood, P. R.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, Opt. Express 13, 3513 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegarty, J.

N. A. Olsson and J. Hegarty, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, D. R.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Ippen, E. P.

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, M. Y.

Leigh, M. S.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, S. A. E.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Commun. 182, 403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsson, N. A.

N. A. Olsson and J. Hegarty, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randoux, S.

Reeves-Hall, P. C.

P. C. Reeves-Hall and J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 37, 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Suret, P.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

Taylor, J. R.

P. C. Reeves-Hall and J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 37, 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Commun. 182, 403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Thijs, P. J. A.

P. J. A. Thijs, L. F. Tiemeijer, J. J. M. Binsma, and T. Vandongen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tiemeijer, L. F.

P. J. A. Thijs, L. F. Tiemeijer, J. J. M. Binsma, and T. Vandongen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vandongen, T.

P. J. A. Thijs, L. F. Tiemeijer, J. J. M. Binsma, and T. Vandongen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. H.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

P. C. Reeves-Hall and J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 37, 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. J. A. Thijs, L. F. Tiemeijer, J. J. M. Binsma, and T. Vandongen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

N. A. Olsson and J. Hegarty, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Commun. 182, 403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 274-328.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Setup of the Raman-FDML laser. Spectra of (B) Raman- and (C) SOA-FDML lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sweep intensities for (A) f 0 = 66 kHz and (B) f 0 + 8 Hz . Cavity ring-down of (C) cw and (D) FDML operation ( 1024 256 times averaged). The exponential fit (dashed line) gives time constants (round-trip loss) of (C) 9.8 μ s ( 6.7 dB ) and (D) 8.5 μ s ( 7.7 dB ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured sensitivity roll-off over depth for (A) SOA FDML, (B) Raman FDML. Curves and circles correspond to point spread functions and fringe visibility, respectively. (C) Image of electronic circuit generated from a volumetric 3D dataset.

Equations (1)

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loss dB = T R T 0 10 log 10 ( e ) .

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