Abstract

The size of a particle smaller than the diffraction limit is measured using a conventional optical microscope by adopting a standing evanescent field illumination. The scattering intensity from a nanoparticle is periodically modulated by shifting the intensity fringes of the standing evanescent field. By measuring contrast of scattering intensity variation during one cycle of modulation, particle sizes can be estimated easily. Furthermore, material dependence can be canceled using contrast as an evaluation factor. From the experimental results, particle sizes ranging from 20  to  250nm are successfully determined. This technique offers a low-cost size measurement for nanoparticles.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2008 (1)

X. Yu and N. Umeda, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. Yu, T. Torisawa, and N. Umeda, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

H. Schneckenburger, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 13 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. C. Ke and M. Gu, Opt. Commun. 171, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Bhandari, Phys. Rep. 281, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1983 (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), pp. 132-145.

1981 (1)

1956 (1)

S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Sect. A 44, 247 (1956).

Aussenegg, F. R.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Axelrod, D.

D. Axelrod, Traffic 2, 764 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhandari, R.

R. Bhandari, Phys. Rep. 281, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), pp. 132-145.

Bopp, M. A.

Chan, V. Z-H.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, E.

Dandliker, R.

Ditlbacheer, H.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geier, S.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

P. C. Ke and M. Gu, Opt. Commun. 171, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hecker, N. E.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), pp. 132-145.

Ke, P. C.

P. C. Ke and M. Gu, Opt. Commun. 171, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Krenn, J. R.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meixner, A. J.

Moller, M.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nesci, A.

Pancharatnam, S.

S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Sect. A 44, 247 (1956).

Schneckenburger, H.

H. Schneckenburger, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 13 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T. C.

Sonnichsen, C.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spatz, J. P.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tarrach, G.

Temple, P. A.

Torisawa, T.

X. Yu, T. Torisawa, and N. Umeda, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Umeda, N.

X. Yu and N. Umeda, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, T. Torisawa, and N. Umeda, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

X. Yu and N. Umeda, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, T. Torisawa, and N. Umeda, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

X. Yu and N. Umeda, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Sonnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacheer, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z-H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Moller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2949 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Yu, T. Torisawa, and N. Umeda, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 2833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

H. Schneckenburger, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 13 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. C. Ke and M. Gu, Opt. Commun. 171, 205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

R. Bhandari, Phys. Rep. 281, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Sect. A (1)

S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Sect. A 44, 247 (1956).

Traffic (1)

D. Axelrod, Traffic 2, 764 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), pp. 132-145.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical intensity variation of scattering light by finite sum method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measuring the scattering intensity of nanoparticles in standing evanescent field. BS, LP, QWP, and HWP indicate beam splitter, linear polarizer, quarter-wavelength plate, and half-wavelength plates, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity variation of the scattering light obtained from polystyrene nanoparticles with diameters of 90, 150, and 250 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical contrast with respect to particle size (solid curve) and experimental contrasts of the scattered light for various sizes and materials.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Standard Deviation of Samples and Experimental Contrasts

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I SEF = 2 I 0 exp ( 2 z z 0 ) [ 1 + cos ( 4 π λ n 1 x sin θ + ϕ ) ] ,
Γ = λ 0 2 n 1 sin θ .
C = I max I min I max + I min .

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