Abstract

Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is used to quantitatively map the concentration of a small molecule in three dimensions in a microfluidic mixing device. The resulting experimental data are compared with computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulations. A line-scanning semiconfocal FLIM microscope allows the full mixing profile to be imaged in a single scan with submicrometer resolution over an arbitrary channel length from the point of confluence. Following experimental and CFD optimization, mixing times down to 1.3±0.4ms were achieved with the single-layer microfluidic device.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

S. Yao and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 79, 5753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Benninger, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 8536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Schafer, Opt. Lett. 32, 2568 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Matthews, Anal. Chem. 79, 4101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. de Beule, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. K. P. Benninger, Anal. Chem. 78, 2272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. de Mello, Nature 442, 394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Park, Anal. Chem. 78, 4465 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

G. I. Redford, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

J. B. Knight, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bakajin, O.

S. Yao and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 79, 5753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benninger, R. K.

R. K. Benninger, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 8536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benninger, R. K. P.

R. K. P. Benninger, Anal. Chem. 78, 2272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, R. B.

R. B. Bird, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, 1960).

de Beule, P.

P. de Beule, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Mello, A. J.

A. J. de Mello, Nature 442, 394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. B.

J. B. Knight, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, S. M.

S. M. Matthews, Anal. Chem. 79, 4101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. Y.

H. Y. Park, Anal. Chem. 78, 4465 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redford, G. I.

G. I. Redford, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, D.

Yao, S.

S. Yao and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 79, 5753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

H. Y. Park, Anal. Chem. 78, 4465 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yao and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 79, 5753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Matthews, Anal. Chem. 79, 4101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. P. Benninger, Anal. Chem. 78, 2272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.

R. K. Benninger, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 8536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

G. I. Redford, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 224504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech.

P. de Beule, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

A. J. de Mello, Nature 442, 394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. B. Knight, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. B. Bird, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, 1960).

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of channel layout and (inset) CFD mesh of mixing junction. (b) 3-D CFD simulation result of the mixing junction, where the scale bar represents the concentration of NaI within the fluorescein stream. The channel edges are outlined with dashed white lines, the central and side channel flow rates are 1 and 6 μ L min respectively, and the image has been sliced in the y–z plane down the center of the channel to facilitate inspection of the mixing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) 3-D concentration map of the mixing junction. The central and side channel flow rates are 1 and 6 μ L min , respectively. (b) Profiles of [ Q ] calculated from the experimental fluorescence lifetime values and the CFD simulation as a function of position in the y direction. The experimental data are shown as circles and the simulation data as a dashed curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Mixing times from experimental and simulated data as a function of (a) α (side flow rate/central flow rate) for a fixed total flow rate of 7 μ L min and (b) total flow rate for a fixed α of 6.

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