Abstract

An effective digital frequency modulation approach to achieve directional blood flow imaging within microcirculations in tissue beds in vivo for optical microangiography is presented. The method only requires the system to capture one three-dimensional data set within which the interferograms are modulated by a constant frequency modulation that gives one directional flow information. The result is that the imaging speed is doubled and the computational load is halved. The method is experimentally validated by a flow phantom and is tested for imaging of cerebral vascular blood perfusion in a live mouse with the cranium left intact.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (6)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

1998 (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

An, L.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z. P.

de Boer, J. F.

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S.

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, S.

Jacques, S.

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Ma, Z. H.

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Srinivas, E.

Tearney, G. J.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, X.

White, B. R.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) and (B) are the OMAG structural and flow images calculated from the spectrograms captured when f M = 400 Hz . (C) and (D) are corresponding results computed from the DFM approach applied to the same dataset. Scale bar = 500 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In vivo OMAG imaging results. (A) 3D rendered microstructural image ( 2 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm ) where the physiological layers such as skull bone, meninges, and cortex are delineated. (B) x y projection image of directional blood flow network within the scanned volume in (A). Owing to the depth-resolved feature of OMAG imaging, the directional blood flows within the meningeal layer (C), and the cortex layer (D) can be separated. Scale bar = 500 μ m .

Equations (5)

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B ( t 1 , t 2 ) = cos [ 2 π f 0 t 1 + 2 π ( f M f D ) t 2 + ϕ ] ,
B ̂ ( t 1 , t 2 ) = cos [ 2 π f 0 t 1 + 2 π ( f M f D ) t 2 + ϕ ] + j sin [ 2 π f 0 t 1 + 2 π ( f M f D ) t 2 + ϕ ] ,
B ( t 1 , t 2 ) = cos [ 2 π f 0 t 1 2 π ( f M + f D ) t 2 + ϕ ] ,
B ̂ ( t 1 , t 2 ) = cos [ 2 π f 0 t 1 2 π ( f M + f D ) t 2 + ϕ ] + j sin [ 2 π f 0 t 1 2 π ( f M + f D ) t 2 + ϕ ] ,
B ̂ ( t 1 , t 2 ) = cos [ 2 π f 0 t 1 2 π ( f M + f D ) t 2 + ϕ ] j sin [ 2 π f 0 t 1 2 π ( f M + f D ) t 2 + ϕ ] .

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