Abstract

It is demonstrated that the ultimate physical limit of resolution of novel imaging devices based on arrays of metallic rods is determined by the skin depth of the metal. Our theoretical and numerical results show that wire medium lenses may provide a unique solution for subwavelength imaging at frequencies up to the terahertz range and may enable image formation at a significant distance from the source plane.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (3)

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Silveirinha, P. Belov, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. B 75, 035108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. A. Belov and M. G. Silveirinha, Phys. Rev. E 73, 056607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, Phys. Rev. B 73, 033108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Belov, R. Marques, S. Maslovski, I. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. Simovski, and S. Tretyakov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Alexander, R. W.

Bell, R. J.

Belov, P.

M. Silveirinha, P. Belov, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. B 75, 035108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Belov, R. Marques, S. Maslovski, I. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. Simovski, and S. Tretyakov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Belov, P. A.

P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, Phys. Rev. B 73, 033108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov and M. G. Silveirinha, Phys. Rev. E 73, 056607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Y.

P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, Phys. Rev. B 73, 033108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, Y.-J.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikonen, P.

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, L. L.

Marques, R.

P. Belov, R. Marques, S. Maslovski, I. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. Simovski, and S. Tretyakov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maslovski, S.

P. Belov, R. Marques, S. Maslovski, I. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. Simovski, and S. Tretyakov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nefedov, I.

P. Belov, R. Marques, S. Maslovski, I. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. Simovski, and S. Tretyakov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Querry, M. R.

Silveirinha, M.

M. Silveirinha, P. Belov, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. B 75, 035108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Belov, R. Marques, S. Maslovski, I. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. Simovski, and S. Tretyakov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silveirinha, M. G.

P. A. Belov and M. G. Silveirinha, Phys. Rev. E 73, 056607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simovski, C.

M. Silveirinha, P. Belov, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. B 75, 035108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Belov, R. Marques, S. Maslovski, I. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. Simovski, and S. Tretyakov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simovski, C. R.

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudhakaran, S.

P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, Phys. Rev. B 73, 033108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S.

P. Belov, R. Marques, S. Maslovski, I. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. Simovski, and S. Tretyakov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Westphal, V.

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

P. Belov, R. Marques, S. Maslovski, I. Nefedov, M. Silveirinha, C. Simovski, and S. Tretyakov, Phys. Rev. B 67, 113103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, and P. Ikonen, Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov, Y. Hao, and S. Sudhakaran, Phys. Rev. B 73, 033108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Silveirinha, P. Belov, and C. Simovski, Phys. Rev. B 75, 035108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P. A. Belov and M. G. Silveirinha, Phys. Rev. E 73, 056607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, Science 315, 1699 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized H y at the image plane for different values of the rods' radius R. The geometry of the system is represented in the inset; the field transmitted through a subwavelength slit (at x = 0 ) in an opaque screen is imaged by a wire medium slab at 5 THz . The metal is silver, and the lattice constant is a = 0.04 λ 0 = 2.4 μ m . The black solid curves represent the results calculated with Eq. (5), whereas the black dashed curves represent the results obtained with CST Microwave Studio.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical modeling of subwavelength imaging at 5 THz ( λ = 60 μ m ) . (a) Geometry of the lens: a square array with a 1.3 μ m period formed by silver nanorods with 130 nm radius embedded into a block of chalcogenide glass ( ε = 2.2 ) . All dimensions in the figure are given in micrometers. The lens is excited by a planar antenna shaped in the form of the letters THz, and located 650 nm apart from the front interface of the lens. Calculated distributions of the normal component of electric field (b) at the front interface (source plane) and (c) at the back interface (image plane).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ultimate Limit of Resolution of Wire Medium Slabs for Several Metals and Frequencies a

Equations (6)

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ε ̿ = ε ( u ̂ x u ̂ x + u ̂ y u ̂ y ) + u ̂ z u ̂ z ,
k z ( 0 ) = k z k = 0 ω c , k z ( ) = k z k = = ( ω c ) 2 + β c 2 ,
k z ( ) k z ( 0 ) 1 + c 2 ( 1 j Γ ω ) ω m 2 R 2 ( β p a ) 2 π .
c ω m R ( 1 + ( Γ ω ) 2 ) 1 4 1 .
δ = c ω Im { ε m } c ω m ( 1 + ( Γ ω ) 2 ) 1 4 1 cos ( 1 2 arctan ( Γ ω ) ) .
H y ( x ) 1 π 0 e γ 0 ( d 1 + d 2 ) 2 γ 0 T ( k x ) cos ( k x x ) d k x ,

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