Abstract

We have performed IR spectromicroscopy of cells immersed in liquid water, with a lateral resolution better than 100nm. Here, we use the motion of an atomic force microscope tip, probing the local transient deformation induced by an IR pulsed laser tuned at a sample absorbing wavelength. By Fourier analysis of the vibration of the cantilever tip, we can discriminate frequencies that are characteristic of the object, thus eliminating the influence of the water absorption. This opens the door of chemical imaging of living species in vivo, with spatial resolution of the order of the size of cell components.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and C. Boccara, Opt. Lett. 20, 1924 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy , 107, 1194 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy 108, 635 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy , 107, 1194 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dazzi, K. Kjoller, and M. Reading, “High-frequency deflection measurement of IR absorption,” U.S. patent 11/803,421 (May 15, 2007).

2006 (3)

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Nano Lett. 6, 1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ortega, F. Glotin, and R. Prazeres, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

1999 (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Bachelot, R.

Boccara, C.

Boucaud, P.

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, M.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Nano Lett. 6, 1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dazzi, A.

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy 108, 635 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy , 107, 1194 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dazzi, K. Kjoller, and M. Reading, “High-frequency deflection measurement of IR absorption,” U.S. patent 11/803,421 (May 15, 2007).

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Opt. Lett. 30, 2388 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleyzes, P.

Glotin, F.

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy 108, 635 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy , 107, 1194 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ortega, F. Glotin, and R. Prazeres, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Opt. Lett. 30, 2388 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Nano Lett. 6, 1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houel, J.

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Nano Lett. 6, 1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kjoller, K.

A. Dazzi, K. Kjoller, and M. Reading, “High-frequency deflection measurement of IR absorption,” U.S. patent 11/803,421 (May 15, 2007).

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lemaître, A.

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miard, A.

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, J. M.

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy 108, 635 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy , 107, 1194 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ortega, F. Glotin, and R. Prazeres, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Opt. Lett. 30, 2388 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortéga, J. M.

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prazeres, R.

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy 108, 635 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy , 107, 1194 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ortega, F. Glotin, and R. Prazeres, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Opt. Lett. 30, 2388 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reading, M.

A. Dazzi, K. Kjoller, and M. Reading, “High-frequency deflection measurement of IR absorption,” U.S. patent 11/803,421 (May 15, 2007).

Sauvage, S.

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taubner, T.

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Nano Lett. 6, 1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (2)

J. M. Ortega, F. Glotin, and R. Prazeres, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, Nano Lett. 6, 1307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Houel, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, J. M. Ortéga, A. Miard, and A. Lemaître, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy , 107, 1194 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dazzi, R. Prazeres, F. Glotin, and J. M. Ortega, Ultramicroscopy 108, 635 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Dazzi, K. Kjoller, and M. Reading, “High-frequency deflection measurement of IR absorption,” U.S. patent 11/803,421 (May 15, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fourier analysis of cantilever response to an IR absorption at 1080 cm 1 for a, dried hyphae deposited on the substrate and b, hyphae in water (gray curve) and for water only (black curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of a, AFM topography and b, PTIR mapping on a dried sample recorded at cantilever response at 57 kHz .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between PTIR and FTIR spectrum. a, PTIR spectrum (at 31.6 kHz ) of one blastospore in water (black curve) and corresponding FTIR spectrum (gray curve, taken on a layer of millions of blastospores). b, PTIR spectum (at 19 kHz ) on the prism in water (black curve) and water FTIR spectrum (gray curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Study of (1) hyphae and (2) blastospore immersed in water. The PTIR data are taken by irradiating at 1080 cm 1 . a, AFM topography; b, PTIR at 80 kHz ; c, PTIR at 31.6 kHz ; d, PTIR at 19 kHz .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross section of two blastospores by AFM topography (black curve) and PTIR (gray diamonds). Convolution of the AFM topography by Gaussian curve with 100, 200, and 400 nm rms values are shown for comparison.

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