Abstract

Imaging large tissue areas with microscopic resolution in vivo may offer an alternative to random excisional biopsy. We present an approach for performing confocal imaging of large tissue surface areas using spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM). We demonstrate a single-optical-fiber SECM apparatus, designed for imaging luminal organs, that is capable of imaging with a transverse resolution of 2.1μm over a subsurface area of 16cm2 in less than 1min. Due to the unique probe configuration and scanning geometery, the speed and resolution of this new imaging technology are sufficient for comprehensively imaging large tissues areas at a microscopic scale in times that are appropriate for clinical use.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Lett. 28, 414 (2003).
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M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
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C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Express 11, 120 (2003).
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J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Gonzalez, G. Rubinstein, V. Mordovtseva, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Cutan. Pathol. 26, 504 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. Gonzalez, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 538 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1993

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Gonzalez, G. Rubinstein, V. Mordovtseva, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Cutan. Pathol. 26, 504 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gonzalez, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 538 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aziz, D.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Buess, G.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burg, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, K.

Cave, C.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cave, and G. B. Heckly, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chidley, M.

Cho, J. Y.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contag, C. H.

Delaney, P.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descour, M.

Descour, M. R.

Dickensheets, D. L.

Enders, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

Fukami, N.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, M.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

Gmitro, A. F.

Gnaendiger, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, S.

S. Gonzalez, G. Rubinstein, V. Mordovtseva, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Cutan. Pathol. 26, 504 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gonzalez, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 538 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckly, G. B.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cave, and G. B. Heckly, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hidaka, E.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Inoue, H.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janell, D.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashida, H.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

Knittel, J.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, S.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laemmel, E.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gargasson, J. F.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Goualher, G.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, C.

Mandella, M. J.

McLaren, W.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messerschmidt, B.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mordovtseva, V.

S. Gonzalez, G. Rubinstein, V. Mordovtseva, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Cutan. Pathol. 26, 504 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno-Swirc, S.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cave, and G. B. Heckly, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Motz, J. T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

Peltier, E.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cave, and G. B. Heckly, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perchant, A.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

Polglase, A.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Possner, T.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Gonzalez, G. Rubinstein, V. Mordovtseva, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Cutan. Pathol. 26, 504 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gonzalez, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 538 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinstein, G.

S. Gonzalez, G. Rubinstein, V. Mordovtseva, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Cutan. Pathol. 26, 504 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakashita, M.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Satodate, H.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnieder, L.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shiokawa, A.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Shiskov, M.

Sung, K. B.

Tamegai, Y.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, J.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Thiberville, L.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cave, and G. B. Heckly, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vercauteren, T.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cave, and G. B. Heckly, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vicaut, E.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

Webb, R. H.

White, W. M.

Yelin, D.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, T.

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

L. Thiberville, S. Moreno-Swirc, T. Vercauteren, E. Peltier, C. Cave, and G. B. Heckly, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175, 22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Endoscopy

M. Sakashita, H. Inoue, H. Kashida, J. Tanaka, J. Y. Cho, H. Satodate, E. Hidaka, T. Yoshida, N. Fukami, Y. Tamegai, A. Shiokawa, and S. Kudo, Endoscopy 35, 1033 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterology 127, 706 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cutan. Pathol.

S. Gonzalez, G. Rubinstein, V. Mordovtseva, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Cutan. Pathol. 26, 504 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

S. Gonzalez, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 538 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vasc. Res.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, Opt. Commun. 188, 267 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proof-of-principle apparatus for large area confocal microscopy. L, aspheric lens; G, diffraction grating; H, optics housing; M, motor; G1, spectrometer grating; L1, spectrometer lens; L2, L3, focusing lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of USAF resolution chart in three magnification steps. The original data set (left) was a 2 cm diameter, 0.5 mm long cylinder.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comprehensive SECM image data from a lens paper phantom, displayed at increasing magnifications. a, Integrated view of the entire data set. b, Single optical section from the data set in a. c, Magnification of 4.5 × of the region of interest marked in b. d, 16.7 × magnification of the region marked in c. e, Magnification of 50 × of the region marked in d. f, Magnification of 125 × of the region marked in e. Rectangles in each image represent the zoomed regions of interest.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Circumferential SECM image data from a swine intestinal tissue fragment, displayed at increasing magnifications. With respect to the image depicted in a, the magnifications are as follows: a, 1 × ; b, 4 × ; c, 20 × ; d, 40 × . Dotted rectangles in each image represent the zoomed regions of interest.

Metrics