Abstract

We present a novel needle-based device for the measurement of refractive index and scattering using low-coherence interferometry. Coupled to the sample arm of an optical coherence tomography system, the device detects the scattering response of, and optical path length through, a sample residing in a fixed-width channel. We report use of the device to make near-infrared measurements of tissues and materials with known optical properties. The device could be used to exploit the refractive index variations of tissue for medical and biological diagnostics accessible by needle insertion.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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[CrossRef]

2005

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R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. T. M. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. C. L. Hendriks, and P. H. M. Peeters, Br. J. Cancer 90, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, M. J. Cobb, Y. Chen, M. B. Kimmey, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 29, 1763 (2004).
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2003

2002

2000

1997

1996

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 898 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1992

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Nemoto, Appl. Opt. 31, 6690 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

Alexandrov, S. A.

Armstrong, J. J.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zvyagin, K. K. M. B. D. Silva, S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, J. J. Armstrong, T. Tsuzuki, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Express 11, 3503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beuthan, J.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolin, F. P.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Carney, P. S.

Chaney, E. J.

A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2165 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chudoba, C.

Cobb, M. J.

Ding, H.

Dunn, A.

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 898 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eastwood, P. R.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ference, R. J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gray, D. F.

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

Helfmann, J.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendriks, J. H. C. L.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. T. M. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. C. L. Hendriks, and P. H. M. Peeters, Br. J. Cancer 90, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrig, M.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, D. R.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, T. R.

Holland, R.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. T. M. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. C. L. Hendriks, and P. H. M. Peeters, Br. J. Cancer 90, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X. H.

Jacobs, K. M.

Kimmey, M. B.

Ko, T.

Leigh, M. S.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Liu, X.

Lu, J. Q.

Mali, W. P. T. M.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. T. M. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. C. L. Hendriks, and P. H. M. Peeters, Br. J. Cancer 90, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

Minet, O.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, G.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemoto, S.

Peeters, P. H. M.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. T. M. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. C. L. Hendriks, and P. H. M. Peeters, Br. J. Cancer 90, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterse, J. L.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. T. M. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. C. L. Hendriks, and P. H. M. Peeters, Br. J. Cancer 90, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pijnappel, R. M.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. T. M. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. C. L. Hendriks, and P. H. M. Peeters, Br. J. Cancer 90, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

Preuss, L. E.

Reed, W. A.

Reynolds, J. J.

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 898 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Schnitzer, M. J.

Silva, K. K. M. B. D.

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

Taylor, R. C.

Tearney, G. J.

Tsuzuki, T.

van den Donk, M.

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. T. M. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. C. L. Hendriks, and P. H. M. Peeters, Br. J. Cancer 90, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. H.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

Zvyagin, A. V.

Zysk, A. M.

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 226 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Br. J. Cancer

R. M. Pijnappel, M. van den Donk, R. Holland, W. P. T. M. Mali, J. L. Peterse, J. H. C. L. Hendriks, and P. H. M. Peeters, Br. J. Cancer 90, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Dunn and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 898 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2165 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Muller, Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Needle-based refractive index measurement probe. (a) Illustrations of the needle housing design and photograph of the prototype. (b) OCT-coupled optical fiber probe showing the beam path geometry. fg , fiber groove; f, ferrule; s, metal sleeve; g, GRIN lens; p, right-angle prism; w, window; tc , tissue channel; r, reflective surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average of 400 axial scans of silicone fluid and glycerin. Axial position of the reflector ( r ) depends on the refractive index of the sample contained between the sample–window interface ( w 2 ) and r. Thin silicone layer w 1 - w 2 is also visible. Inset: calibration of relative reflector position to refractometer measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Averaged axial scan responses of Intralipid and chicken tissue. Scattering from the sample is visible between w 2 and r. w 1 , window layers interface; w 2 , tissue–window interface; r, tissue–reflector interface.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive Index Values of Intralipid and Chicken Tissue Measured with the Prototype Needle Device a

Equations (3)

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OPL = 0 l n g ( z ) d z ,
n g ¯ = OPL l .
OPL OPL ref = cos [ θ 1 sin 1 ( n 1 sin θ 1 n 2 ) ] sin [ θ 1 sin 1 ( n 1 sin θ 1 n 2 ) ] tan θ 2 ,

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