Abstract

Two-photon absorption fluorescence is employed within a microfluidic device to create a three-dimensional chemical concentration map for mixing uniformity characterization. This multiphoton technique images fluorescence intensity directly and provides a simple, rapid, and readily employed route to composition characterization within microfluidic systems.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Sinton, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 1, 2 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Chun and S. Lee, Colloids Surf., A 267, 86 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Bullock and T. Lundy, Am. Biotechnol. Lab 24, 8 (2006).
  9. H. Kinoshita, S. Kaneda, T. Fujii, and M. Oshima, Lab Chip 7, 338 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).
  16. E. A. Permyakov, Luminescent Spectroscopy of Proteins (CRC, 1993).
  17. Z. Wu, N. Nguyen, and X. Huang, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 604 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007

H. Kinoshita, S. Kaneda, T. Fujii, and M. Oshima, Lab Chip 7, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. Y. Park, X. Qiu, E. Rhoades, J. Korlach, L. W. Kwok, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and L. Pollack, Anal. Chem. 78, 4465 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Chen, T. Horng, and W. Y. Tan, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2, 455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Hertzog, B. Ivorra, B. Mohammadi, O. Bakajin, and J. G. Santiago, Anal. Chem. 78, 4299 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bullock and T. Lundy, Am. Biotechnol. Lab 24, 8 (2006).

2005

M. Chun and S. Lee, Colloids Surf., A 267, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. K. P. Benninger, O. Hofmann, J. McGinty, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, M. A. A. Neil, A. J. deMello, and P. M. W. French, Opt. Express 13, 6275 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stiles, R. Fallon, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, J. Squier, and R. Jimenez, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 1, 280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. Xi, D. L. Marks, D. S. Parikh, L. Raskin, and S. A. Boppart, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 7516 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, N. Nguyen, and X. Huang, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sinton, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 1, 2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Song and R. F. Ismagilov, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14613 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, Electrophoresis 24, 3563 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. F. Ismagilov, A. D. Stroock, P. J. A. Kenis, G. Whitesides, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).

Am. Biotechnol. Lab

L. Bullock and T. Lundy, Am. Biotechnol. Lab 24, 8 (2006).

Anal. Chem.

D. E. Hertzog, B. Ivorra, B. Mohammadi, O. Bakajin, and J. G. Santiago, Anal. Chem. 78, 4299 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Hertzog, X. Michalet, M. Jager, X. Kong, J. G. Santiago, S. Weiss, and O. Bakajin, Anal. Chem. 76, 7169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Park, X. Qiu, E. Rhoades, J. Korlach, L. W. Kwok, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and L. Pollack, Anal. Chem. 78, 4465 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. F. Ismagilov, A. D. Stroock, P. J. A. Kenis, G. Whitesides, and H. A. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf., A

M. Chun and S. Lee, Colloids Surf., A 267, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electrophoresis

S. K. Sia and G. M. Whitesides, Electrophoresis 24, 3563 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

H. Song and R. F. Ismagilov, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14613 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

Z. Wu, N. Nguyen, and X. Huang, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

H. Kinoshita, S. Kaneda, T. Fujii, and M. Oshima, Lab Chip 7, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluid.

D. Sinton, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 1, 2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Chen, T. Horng, and W. Y. Tan, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 2, 455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Stiles, R. Fallon, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. M. Marr, J. Squier, and R. Jimenez, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 1, 280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Photochem. Photobiol.

H. Du, R. A. Fuh, J. Li, A. Corkan, and J. S. Lindsey, Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 141 (1998).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. Xi, D. L. Marks, D. S. Parikh, L. Raskin, and S. A. Boppart, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 7516 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. A. Permyakov, Luminescent Spectroscopy of Proteins (CRC, 1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of two-photon absorption fluorescence microscope setup and (b) optical detection geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three-dimensional fluorescence images showing (a) unquenched and (b) quenched cross sections across the channel width and (c) unquenched and (d) quenched cross sections across the channel depth. Channel outlines are superimposed on the figures. Fluorescence intensity is normalized.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of KI concentration as a function of x and z at the center width of the channel ( y = 0 ) (a) measured experimentally and (b) calculated from 3D modeling. The zero position along the x axis corresponds to the beginning of the mixing junction.

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