Abstract

Microscale fiber tip sensors based on the plasmon resonance are reported. The fabrication process derived from our previous approach for manufacturing near-field scanning optical microscopy probes has been optimized for sensing applications. A typical tip sensor is a tapered fiber 400μm in length, coated with a nanoporous thin silver film. The miniaturized geometry of the sensor allows detection in a single droplet of liquid solution (20μl). The tip sensor is sensitive for refractive indices between 1.33 and 1.40 with a sensitivity of at least 3×104refractive index unit (RIU)nm. The Raman scattering enhancement through these microsensors demonstrates the important role played by the localized plasmon resonance. The sensors' linear response covers a large region, interesting for biosensing in aqueous environments such as biomedical applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. M. Minea, G. Ollivier, G. Louarn, and M. Chaigneau, "Nanometric emitter/receiver guides," International Patent Publication WO/2006/131639 (filed December 14, 2006).
  19. X. Liu, D. Song, Q. Zhang, Y. Tian, L. Ding, and H. Zhang, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 24, 887 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007

M. Chaigneau, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Ultramicroscopy 107, 1042 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Rev. Sci. Instum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chang, Y. C. Chen, H. L. Kuo, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. C. Kim, W. Peng, S. Banerji, and K. S. Booksh, Opt. Lett. 30, 2218 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, D. Song, Q. Zhang, Y. Tian, L. Ding, and H. Zhang, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 24, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Mitsui, Y. Handa, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Grunwald and G. Holst, Sens. Actuators A 113, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kurihara, H. Ohkawa, Y. Iwazaki, O. Niwa, T. Tobita, and K. Suzuki, Anal. Chim. Acta 523, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S.-F. Cheng and L.-K. Chau, Anal. Chem. 75, 16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. Drummond, M. G. Hill, and J. K. Barton, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1192 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, Anal. Chem. 71, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278(5339), 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. Riklin, E. Katz, I. Willner, A. Stocker, and A. F. Buckmann, Nature 376, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1975

M. N. Kronick and W. A. Little, J. Immunol. Meth. 8, 235 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1968

E. Kretchmann and H. Reather, Naturforsch 23, 2135 (1968).

Balaa, K.

K. Balaa, M. Kanso, S. Cuenot, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, "Experimental realization and numerical simulation of wavelength-modulated fibre optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

Banerji, S.

Barton, J. K.

T. G. Drummond, M. G. Hill, and J. K. Barton, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1192 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booksh, K. S.

Buckmann, A. F.

A. Riklin, E. Katz, I. Willner, A. Stocker, and A. F. Buckmann, Nature 376, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaigneau, M.

M. Chaigneau, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Ultramicroscopy 107, 1042 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Rev. Sci. Instum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Minea, G. Ollivier, G. Louarn, and M. Chaigneau, "Nanometric emitter/receiver guides," International Patent Publication WO/2006/131639 (filed December 14, 2006).

Chang, Y. J.

Y. J. Chang, Y. C. Chen, H. L. Kuo, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, L.-K.

S.-F. Cheng and L.-K. Chau, Anal. Chem. 75, 16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. J. Chang, Y. C. Chen, H. L. Kuo, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, S.-F.

S.-F. Cheng and L.-K. Chau, Anal. Chem. 75, 16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuenot, S.

K. Balaa, M. Kanso, S. Cuenot, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, "Experimental realization and numerical simulation of wavelength-modulated fibre optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

Dancil, K.-P. S.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278(5339), 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, L.

X. Liu, D. Song, Q. Zhang, Y. Tian, L. Ding, and H. Zhang, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 24, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, T. G.

T. G. Drummond, M. G. Hill, and J. K. Barton, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1192 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghadiri, M. R.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278(5339), 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunwald, B.

B. Grunwald and G. Holst, Sens. Actuators A 113, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Handa, Y.

K. Mitsui, Y. Handa, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. G.

T. G. Drummond, M. G. Hill, and J. K. Barton, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1192 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holst, G.

B. Grunwald and G. Holst, Sens. Actuators A 113, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwazaki, Y.

K. Kurihara, H. Ohkawa, Y. Iwazaki, O. Niwa, T. Tobita, and K. Suzuki, Anal. Chim. Acta 523, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jorgenson, R. C.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kajikawa, K.

K. Mitsui, Y. Handa, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kanso, M.

K. Balaa, M. Kanso, S. Cuenot, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, "Experimental realization and numerical simulation of wavelength-modulated fibre optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

Katz, E.

A. Riklin, E. Katz, I. Willner, A. Stocker, and A. F. Buckmann, Nature 376, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. C.

Kretchmann, E.

E. Kretchmann and H. Reather, Naturforsch 23, 2135 (1968).

Kronick, M. N.

M. N. Kronick and W. A. Little, J. Immunol. Meth. 8, 235 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. L.

Y. J. Chang, Y. C. Chen, H. L. Kuo, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurihara, K.

K. Kurihara, H. Ohkawa, Y. Iwazaki, O. Niwa, T. Tobita, and K. Suzuki, Anal. Chim. Acta 523, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, V. S.-Y.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278(5339), 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, W. A.

M. N. Kronick and W. A. Little, J. Immunol. Meth. 8, 235 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Song, Q. Zhang, Y. Tian, L. Ding, and H. Zhang, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 24, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Louarn, G.

M. Chaigneau, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Ultramicroscopy 107, 1042 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Rev. Sci. Instum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Minea, G. Ollivier, G. Louarn, and M. Chaigneau, "Nanometric emitter/receiver guides," International Patent Publication WO/2006/131639 (filed December 14, 2006).

K. Balaa, M. Kanso, S. Cuenot, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, "Experimental realization and numerical simulation of wavelength-modulated fibre optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

Minea, T. M.

M. Chaigneau, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Ultramicroscopy 107, 1042 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Rev. Sci. Instum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Balaa, M. Kanso, S. Cuenot, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, "Experimental realization and numerical simulation of wavelength-modulated fibre optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

T. M. Minea, G. Ollivier, G. Louarn, and M. Chaigneau, "Nanometric emitter/receiver guides," International Patent Publication WO/2006/131639 (filed December 14, 2006).

Mitsui, K.

K. Mitsui, Y. Handa, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Motesharei, K.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278(5339), 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niwa, O.

K. Kurihara, H. Ohkawa, Y. Iwazaki, O. Niwa, T. Tobita, and K. Suzuki, Anal. Chim. Acta 523, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Obando, L. A.

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, Anal. Chem. 71, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohkawa, H.

K. Kurihara, H. Ohkawa, Y. Iwazaki, O. Niwa, T. Tobita, and K. Suzuki, Anal. Chim. Acta 523, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ollivier, G.

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Rev. Sci. Instum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Minea, G. Ollivier, G. Louarn, and M. Chaigneau, "Nanometric emitter/receiver guides," International Patent Publication WO/2006/131639 (filed December 14, 2006).

Peng, W.

Reather, H.

E. Kretchmann and H. Reather, Naturforsch 23, 2135 (1968).

Riklin, A.

A. Riklin, E. Katz, I. Willner, A. Stocker, and A. F. Buckmann, Nature 376, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sailor, M. J.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278(5339), 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, D.

X. Liu, D. Song, Q. Zhang, Y. Tian, L. Ding, and H. Zhang, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 24, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stocker, A.

A. Riklin, E. Katz, I. Willner, A. Stocker, and A. F. Buckmann, Nature 376, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

K. Kurihara, H. Ohkawa, Y. Iwazaki, O. Niwa, T. Tobita, and K. Suzuki, Anal. Chim. Acta 523, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

X. Liu, D. Song, Q. Zhang, Y. Tian, L. Ding, and H. Zhang, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 24, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tobita, T.

K. Kurihara, H. Ohkawa, Y. Iwazaki, O. Niwa, T. Tobita, and K. Suzuki, Anal. Chim. Acta 523, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, P. K.

Y. J. Chang, Y. C. Chen, H. L. Kuo, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willner, I.

A. Riklin, E. Katz, I. Willner, A. Stocker, and A. F. Buckmann, Nature 376, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yee, S. S.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

X. Liu, D. Song, Q. Zhang, Y. Tian, L. Ding, and H. Zhang, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 24, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

X. Liu, D. Song, Q. Zhang, Y. Tian, L. Ding, and H. Zhang, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 24, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

L. A. Obando and K. S. Booksh, Anal. Chem. 71, 5116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Cheng and L.-K. Chau, Anal. Chem. 75, 16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta

K. Kurihara, H. Ohkawa, Y. Iwazaki, O. Niwa, T. Tobita, and K. Suzuki, Anal. Chim. Acta 523, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Mitsui, Y. Handa, and K. Kajikawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Y. J. Chang, Y. C. Chen, H. L. Kuo, and P. K. Wei, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014032 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Immunol. Meth.

M. N. Kronick and W. A. Little, J. Immunol. Meth. 8, 235 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

T. G. Drummond, M. G. Hill, and J. K. Barton, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1192 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

A. Riklin, E. Katz, I. Willner, A. Stocker, and A. F. Buckmann, Nature 376, 672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naturforsch

E. Kretchmann and H. Reather, Naturforsch 23, 2135 (1968).

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instum.

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Rev. Sci. Instum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278(5339), 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A

B. Grunwald and G. Holst, Sens. Actuators A 113, 174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Balaa, M. Kanso, S. Cuenot, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, "Experimental realization and numerical simulation of wavelength-modulated fibre optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

TrAC Trends Anal. Chem.

X. Liu, D. Song, Q. Zhang, Y. Tian, L. Ding, and H. Zhang, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 24, 887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy

M. Chaigneau, T. M. Minea, and G. Louarn, Ultramicroscopy 107, 1042 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

T. M. Minea, G. Ollivier, G. Louarn, and M. Chaigneau, "Nanometric emitter/receiver guides," International Patent Publication WO/2006/131639 (filed December 14, 2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the apparatus for droplet analysis in the transmission mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of the reported tip sensor (inset, SEM backscattered electrons image of the silver layer).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative resonance spectra obtained for detection in a solution droplet ( 20 μ l ) (u.a., arbitary units).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra of tetrahydronaphtalene recorded with (a) an uncoated fiber tip and (b) the microsensor. The peaks intensities are indicated by the arrows.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration curve for droplet analysis.

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