Abstract

We describe what we believe to be a novel use of spectral-domain optical coherence reflectometry (SD-OCR) for highly sensitive molecular detection in real time. The SD-OCR sensor allows identification of a sensor surface of interest in an OCR depth scan and monitoring the phase alteration due to molecular interaction at that surface with subnanometer optical thickness sensitivity. We present subfemtomole detection sensitivity for etching of SiO2 molecules and demonstrate its application as a biosensor by measuring biotin-streptavidin binding in a microfluidic device.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007

T. Akkin, C. Joo, and J. F. de Boer, Biophys. J. 93, 1347 (2007).
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2006

G. M. Whitesides, Nature 442, 368 (2006).
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M. Zhao, D. Nolte, W. Cho, F. Regnier, M. Varma, G. Lawrence, and J. Pasqua, Clin. Chem. 52, 2135 (2006).
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2005

2004

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Express 12, 367 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arakaki, S. Hideshima, T. Nakagawa, D. Niwa, T. Tanaka, T. Matsunaga, and T. Osaka, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88, 543 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkin, T.

Arakaki, A.

A. Arakaki, S. Hideshima, T. Nakagawa, D. Niwa, T. Tanaka, T. Matsunaga, and T. Osaka, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88, 543 (2004).
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Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B.

Brandenburg, A.

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chen, T.

Cho, W.

M. Zhao, D. Nolte, W. Cho, F. Regnier, M. Varma, G. Lawrence, and J. Pasqua, Clin. Chem. 52, 2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M.

Choma, M. A.

Creazzo, T. L.

Dancil, K.-P. S.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Ellerbee, A. K.

Fercher, A. F.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ghadiri, M. R.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hideshima, S.

A. Arakaki, S. Hideshima, T. Nakagawa, D. Niwa, T. Tanaka, T. Matsunaga, and T. Osaka, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88, 543 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hom-Booher, N.

D. W. Pierce, N. Hom-Booher, and R. D. Vale, Nature 388, 338 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Joo, C.

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knzel, C.

Krauter, R.

Lawrence, G.

M. Zhao, D. Nolte, W. Cho, F. Regnier, M. Varma, G. Lawrence, and J. Pasqua, Clin. Chem. 52, 2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, 2005).

Lin, V. S.-Y.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsunaga, T.

A. Arakaki, S. Hideshima, T. Nakagawa, D. Niwa, T. Tanaka, T. Matsunaga, and T. Osaka, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88, 543 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motesharei, K.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nakagawa, T.

A. Arakaki, S. Hideshima, T. Nakagawa, D. Niwa, T. Tanaka, T. Matsunaga, and T. Osaka, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88, 543 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Niwa, D.

A. Arakaki, S. Hideshima, T. Nakagawa, D. Niwa, T. Tanaka, T. Matsunaga, and T. Osaka, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88, 543 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, D.

M. Zhao, D. Nolte, W. Cho, F. Regnier, M. Varma, G. Lawrence, and J. Pasqua, Clin. Chem. 52, 2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, D. D.

L. Peng, M. M. Varma, F. E. Regnier, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osaka, T.

A. Arakaki, S. Hideshima, T. Nakagawa, D. Niwa, T. Tanaka, T. Matsunaga, and T. Osaka, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88, 543 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pasqua, J.

M. Zhao, D. Nolte, W. Cho, F. Regnier, M. Varma, G. Lawrence, and J. Pasqua, Clin. Chem. 52, 2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, L.

L. Peng, M. M. Varma, F. E. Regnier, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, D. W.

D. W. Pierce, N. Hom-Booher, and R. D. Vale, Nature 388, 338 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

Regnier, F.

M. Zhao, D. Nolte, W. Cho, F. Regnier, M. Varma, G. Lawrence, and J. Pasqua, Clin. Chem. 52, 2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regnier, F. E.

L. Peng, M. M. Varma, F. E. Regnier, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

Schulte, H.

Stefan, M.

Tanaka, T.

A. Arakaki, S. Hideshima, T. Nakagawa, D. Niwa, T. Tanaka, T. Matsunaga, and T. Osaka, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88, 543 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vale, R. D.

D. W. Pierce, N. Hom-Booher, and R. D. Vale, Nature 388, 338 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varma, M.

M. Zhao, D. Nolte, W. Cho, F. Regnier, M. Varma, G. Lawrence, and J. Pasqua, Clin. Chem. 52, 2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varma, M. M.

L. Peng, M. M. Varma, F. E. Regnier, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

G. M. Whitesides, Nature 442, 368 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S.

Yun, S.-H.

Zhao, M.

M. Zhao, D. Nolte, W. Cho, F. Regnier, M. Varma, G. Lawrence, and J. Pasqua, Clin. Chem. 52, 2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Peng, M. M. Varma, F. E. Regnier, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

T. Akkin, C. Joo, and J. F. de Boer, Biophys. J. 93, 1347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biotechnol. Bioeng.

A. Arakaki, S. Hideshima, T. Nakagawa, D. Niwa, T. Tanaka, T. Matsunaga, and T. Osaka, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88, 543 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem.

M. Zhao, D. Nolte, W. Cho, F. Regnier, M. Varma, G. Lawrence, and J. Pasqua, Clin. Chem. 52, 2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. W. Pierce, N. Hom-Booher, and R. D. Vale, Nature 388, 338 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Whitesides, Nature 442, 368 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, Science 278, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the SD-OCR sensor. The spectrometer measures the interference spectrum of the reflected beams from the interfaces, which is then Fourier transformed to obtain depth-resolved intensity and phase information. Using the intensity information, the interference signal related to the molecule-coupled sensor surface is located (circle labeled 1-2), and the phase of that signal is examined to monitor molecular absorption. The other interference signals denoted by 2-3 and 1-3 are not used since their phase information is also influenced by the reflection from other surfaces and the change in solution refractive index. C, collimator; L, focusing lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real-time detection of SiO 2 etch by diluted HF solutions. (a) Optical thickness change was measured as a function of time at an HF volume concentration of 0.07%. The etch rate was measured as 51 nm min . (b) Etch rate as a function of HF volume concentration was examined, showing a dramatic increase at more than 0.02% in HF concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured bBSA-streptavidin binding in a microfluidic device by the SD-OCR sensor. Using bBSA-activated surface, the introduction of streptavidin ( 250 nM ) led to an optical thickness increase due to the binding of streptavidin to the bBSA layer in the channel. However, in the case of a nonfunctionalized fluidic channel, even with the same concentration of streptavidin solution, we did not observe a noticeable signal change.

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