Abstract

We report a high-intensity nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) utilizing a bowtie-shaped aperture. A maximum power of 188μW is achieved from a 180nm bowtie aperture at a wavelength of 970nm. The near-field full width at half-maximum intensity spot size 20nm away from the bowtie aperture is 64nm×66nm from simulation, and the peak near-field intensity is estimated to be as high as 47mWμm2. This intensity is high enough to realize near-field optical recording, and the small spot size corresponds to storage densities up to 150Gbitsin2. The bowtie-aperture VCSEL also enables other applications, such as compact high-intensity probes for ultrahigh-resolution near-field imaging and single molecule fluorescence and spectroscopy.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Shinada, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Arai, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 365 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3226 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, Opt. Express 12, 6391 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Hashizume, P. B. Dayal, and F. Koyama, in 2006 IEEE 20th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2006).
  5. R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. J. Schuck, D. P. From, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320J (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y.-J. Kim, K. Suzuki, and K. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1783 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 1320 (2003).
  12. J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Rao, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, 'High transmission through ridge nano-aperatures on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers' (to be submitted to Opt. Express).

2006 (2)

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320J (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. From, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, Opt. Express 12, 6391 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 1320 (2003).

2001 (2)

S. Shinada, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Arai, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 365 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Kim, K. Suzuki, and K. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arai, M.

S. Shinada, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Arai, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 365 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dayal, P. B.

J. Hashizume, P. B. Dayal, and F. Koyama, in 2006 IEEE 20th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2006).

Eisler, H.-J.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farahani, J. N.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

From, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. From, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goto, K.

Y.-J. Kim, K. Suzuki, and K. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grober, R. D.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Rao, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, 'High transmission through ridge nano-aperatures on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers' (to be submitted to Opt. Express).

Hashizume, J.

J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, Opt. Express 12, 6391 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hashizume, P. B. Dayal, and F. Koyama, in 2006 IEEE 20th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2006).

Hecht, B.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesselink, L.

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 1320 (2003).

Z. Rao, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, 'High transmission through ridge nano-aperatures on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers' (to be submitted to Opt. Express).

Iga, K.

S. Shinada, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Arai, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 365 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, E. X.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Kim, K. Suzuki, and K. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. From, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koyama, F.

J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, Opt. Express 12, 6391 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Shinada, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Arai, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 365 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hashizume, P. B. Dayal, and F. Koyama, in 2006 IEEE 20th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2006).

Matteo, J. A.

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. From, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, N.

S. Shinada, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Arai, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 365 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prober, D. E.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Z.

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Rao, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, 'High transmission through ridge nano-aperatures on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers' (to be submitted to Opt. Express).

Schoelkopf, R. J.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. From, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X.

X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 1320 (2003).

Shinada, S.

S. Shinada, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Arai, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 365 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. From, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

Y.-J. Kim, K. Suzuki, and K. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, R. L.

X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 1320 (2003).

Xu, X.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, Y.

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 1320 (2003).

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Shinada, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Arai, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 365 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y.-J. Kim, K. Suzuki, and K. Goto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. From, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, Proc. SPIE 6132, 61320J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Hashizume, P. B. Dayal, and F. Koyama, in 2006 IEEE 20th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (IEEE, 2006).

Z. Rao, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, 'High transmission through ridge nano-aperatures on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers' (to be submitted to Opt. Express).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nano-aperture VCSEL structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field intensity distribution 20 nm away from the bowtie aperture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscopy image of the nano-slits and bowtie aperture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Polarization-resolved power emitted through the substrate after opening slits. (b) Total far-field power from the bowtie aperture.

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