Abstract

We explored plasmon resonant nanorods of gold as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Nanorod suspensions were generated through wet chemical synthesis and characterized with spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, and OCT. Polyacrylamide-based phantoms were generated with appropriate scattering and anisotropy coefficients (30cm1 and 0.89, respectively) to image distribution of the contrast agent in an environment similar to that of tissue. The observed signal was dependent on whether the plasmon resonance peak overlapped the source bandwidth of the OCT, confirming the resonant character of enhancement. Gold nanorods with plasmon resonance wavelengths overlapping the OCT source yielded a signal-to-background ratio of 4.5dB, relative to the tissue phantom. Strategies for OCT imaging with nanorods are discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

A. G. Podoleanu, Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 041208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cang, T. Sun, Z. Li, J. Chen, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 30, 3048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oldenburg, D. A. Zweifel, C. Xu, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, Proc. SPIE 5703, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J. Perez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton, N. J. Halas, J. L. West, and R. A. Drezek, Proc. SPIE 5316, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, Acad. Radiol. 1, S52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

J. K. Barton, N. J. Halas, J. L. West, and R. A. Drezek, Proc. SPIE 5316, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, Acad. Radiol. 1, S52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 041208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Oldenburg, D. A. Zweifel, C. Xu, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, Proc. SPIE 5703, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 28, 1546 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cang, H.

Carnie, S.

J. Perez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, D. Y. C.

J. Perez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Drezek, R.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Drezek, R. A.

J. K. Barton, N. J. Halas, J. L. West, and R. A. Drezek, Proc. SPIE 5316, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guzman, F.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

J. K. Barton, N. J. Halas, J. L. West, and R. A. Drezek, Proc. SPIE 5316, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, L.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Hoying, J. B.

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, Acad. Radiol. 1, S52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Lee, T. M.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Lin, A.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liz-Marzan, L. M.

J. Perez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loo, C.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

Luo, W.

Marks, D. L.

Mulvaney, P.

J. Perez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, A.

A. Oldenburg, D. A. Zweifel, C. Xu, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, Proc. SPIE 5703, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Perez-Juste, J.

J. Perez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Podoleanu, A. G.

A. G. Podoleanu, Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sitafalwalla, S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, C. J.

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, Acad. Radiol. 1, S52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

Suslick, K. S.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toublan, F. J.

Tumlinson, A.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wei, A.

A. Oldenburg, D. A. Zweifel, C. Xu, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, Proc. SPIE 5703, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

West, J.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

West, J. L.

J. K. Barton, N. J. Halas, J. L. West, and R. A. Drezek, Proc. SPIE 5316, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiley, B. J.

Xia, Y.

Xu, C.

A. Oldenburg, D. A. Zweifel, C. Xu, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, Proc. SPIE 5703, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 041208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

C. Yang, Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zweifel, D. A.

A. Oldenburg, D. A. Zweifel, C. Xu, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, Proc. SPIE 5703, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Acad. Radiol. (1)

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, Acad. Radiol. 1, S52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. Perez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzan, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

A. G. Podoleanu, Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 041208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

C. Yang, Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. K. Barton, N. J. Halas, J. L. West, and R. A. Drezek, Proc. SPIE 5316, 99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Oldenburg, D. A. Zweifel, C. Xu, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, Proc. SPIE 5703, 50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33 (2004).
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Series of nanorod suspensions characterized in this study. The positions of the plasmon resonance peaks in the red and near-infrared inversely relate to the amount of seed added to initiate growth: (in μ l ) 6 (circle), 8 (×), 15 (+), 20 (square), 30 (diamond), 40 (inverted triangle), 50 (triangle).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of TEM of nanorod suspensions resonant at (a) 750 nm and (b) 912 nm . The marker bars indicate 100 nm (original magnification 40,000 × ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT images of different preparations loaded into the polyacrylamide tissue phantom: (a) water, (b) nanorods with resonance at 750 nm , (c) nanorods with resonance at 912 nm . Intensity profiles of the boxed regions are shown at the right and represent average signal intensity (0–255 range, horizontal axis) versus depth (vertical axis). Image dimensions are 3.2 mm by 2 mm .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Average Pixel Intensities in OCT Images

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