Abstract

We have demonstrated a novel sensor architecture based on a liquid-core optical ring-resonator (LCORR) in which a fused silica capillary is utilized to carry the aqueous sample and to act as the ring resonator. The wall thickness of the LCORR is controlled to a few micrometers to expose the whispering gallery mode to the aqueous core. Optical characterization with a water–ethanol mixture shows that the spectral sensitivity of the LCORR sensor is approximately 2.6nm per refractive index unit. A model based on Mie theory is established to explain the experimental results. The LCORR takes advantage of the high sensitivity, small footprint, and low sample consumption with the ring resonator, as well as the efficient fluidic sample delivery with the capillary, and will open an avenue to future multiplexed sensor array development.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Iltchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, in Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. ''Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects and VLSI Photonics/WBM Microcavities,'' 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (IEEE, 2004).
  5. N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Sens. Lett. 3, 315 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Sens. Actuators B 90, 58 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 21, 453 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. P. Landers, Handbook of Capillary Electrophoresis, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Cai and K. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 25, 260 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. A. Ghoreyshi, F. A. Farhadpour, M. Soltanieh, and A. Bansal, J. Membr. Sci. 211, 193 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 476 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Y. Balakirev, S. Porte, M. Vernaz-Gris, M. Berger, J-P. Arie, B. Fouque, and F. Chatelain, Anal. Chem. 77, 5474 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Sens. Lett. 3, 315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 476 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Balakirev, S. Porte, M. Vernaz-Gris, M. Berger, J-P. Arie, B. Fouque, and F. Chatelain, Anal. Chem. 77, 5474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 13, 10754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. J. Moon, G.-W. Park, S.-B. Lee, K. An, and J.-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

''Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects and VLSI Photonics/WBM Microcavities,'' 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (IEEE, 2004).

2003

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Sens. Actuators B 90, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Ghoreyshi, F. A. Farhadpour, M. Soltanieh, and A. Bansal, J. Membr. Sci. 211, 193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Iltchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, in Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 21, 453 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Landers, Handbook of Capillary Electrophoresis, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 1996).

An, K.

H. J. Moon, G.-W. Park, S.-B. Lee, K. An, and J.-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arie, J-P.

M. Y. Balakirev, S. Porte, M. Vernaz-Gris, M. Berger, J-P. Arie, B. Fouque, and F. Chatelain, Anal. Chem. 77, 5474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Balakirev, M. Y.

M. Y. Balakirev, S. Porte, M. Vernaz-Gris, M. Berger, J-P. Arie, B. Fouque, and F. Chatelain, Anal. Chem. 77, 5474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bansal, A.

A. A. Ghoreyshi, F. A. Farhadpour, M. Soltanieh, and A. Bansal, J. Membr. Sci. 211, 193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bearman, G. H.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Iltchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, in Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berger, M.

M. Y. Balakirev, S. Porte, M. Vernaz-Gris, M. Berger, J-P. Arie, B. Fouque, and F. Chatelain, Anal. Chem. 77, 5474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

Chatelain, F.

M. Y. Balakirev, S. Porte, M. Vernaz-Gris, M. Berger, J-P. Arie, B. Fouque, and F. Chatelain, Anal. Chem. 77, 5474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeRose, G. A.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 476 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 13, 10754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Sens. Lett. 3, 315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farhadpour, F. A.

A. A. Ghoreyshi, F. A. Farhadpour, M. Soltanieh, and A. Bansal, J. Membr. Sci. 211, 193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fouque, B.

M. Y. Balakirev, S. Porte, M. Vernaz-Gris, M. Berger, J-P. Arie, B. Fouque, and F. Chatelain, Anal. Chem. 77, 5474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghoreyshi, A. A.

A. A. Ghoreyshi, F. A. Farhadpour, M. Soltanieh, and A. Bansal, J. Membr. Sci. 211, 193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Green, W. M. J.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 476 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Sens. Actuators B 90, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanumegowda, N. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Sens. Lett. 3, 315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 13, 10754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Iltchenko, V. S.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Iltchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, in Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kossakovski, D.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Iltchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, in Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krioukov, E.

E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Sens. Actuators B 90, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Landers, J. P.

J. P. Landers, Handbook of Capillary Electrophoresis, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 1996).

Lee, J.-H.

H. J. Moon, G.-W. Park, S.-B. Lee, K. An, and J.-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-B.

H. J. Moon, G.-W. Park, S.-B. Lee, K. An, and J.-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Iltchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, in Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moon, H. J.

H. J. Moon, G.-W. Park, S.-B. Lee, K. An, and J.-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, J. L.

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Iltchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, in Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Otto, C.

E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Sens. Actuators B 90, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oveys, H.

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Sens. Lett. 3, 315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 13, 10754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, G.-W.

H. J. Moon, G.-W. Park, S.-B. Lee, K. An, and J.-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Porte, S.

M. Y. Balakirev, S. Porte, M. Vernaz-Gris, M. Berger, J-P. Arie, B. Fouque, and F. Chatelain, Anal. Chem. 77, 5474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Scheuer, J.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 476 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soltanieh, M.

A. A. Ghoreyshi, F. A. Farhadpour, M. Soltanieh, and A. Bansal, J. Membr. Sci. 211, 193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

Vernaz-Gris, M.

M. Y. Balakirev, S. Porte, M. Vernaz-Gris, M. Berger, J-P. Arie, B. Fouque, and F. Chatelain, Anal. Chem. 77, 5474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 13, 10754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Sens. Lett. 3, 315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 476 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

M. Y. Balakirev, S. Porte, M. Vernaz-Gris, M. Berger, J-P. Arie, B. Fouque, and F. Chatelain, Anal. Chem. 77, 5474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. J. Moon, G.-W. Park, S.-B. Lee, K. An, and J.-H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, Biophys. J. 85, 1974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 476 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Membr. Sci.

A. A. Ghoreyshi, F. A. Farhadpour, M. Soltanieh, and A. Bansal, J. Membr. Sci. 211, 193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. L. Nadeau, V. S. Iltchenko, D. Kossakovski, G. H. Bearman, and L. Maleki, in Proc. SPIE 4629, 172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

E. Krioukov, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Sens. Actuators B 90, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Lett.

N. M. Hanumegowda, I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, Sens. Lett. 3, 315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. P. Landers, Handbook of Capillary Electrophoresis, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 1996).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1998).
[CrossRef]

''Biophotonics/Optical Interconnects and VLSI Photonics/WBM Microcavities,'' 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (IEEE, 2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Conceptual illustration of a LCORR sensor array. (b) Cross section of a LCORR sensing element. The inner radius and the wall thickness are r 1 and r 2 r 1 , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity distribution of the two TM WGMs ( m = 350 , l = 2 , top) and ( m = 350 , l = 4 , bottom) for two different wall thicknesses (m is the WGM angular momentum term). (a) r 1 = 36 μ m , r 2 = 40 μ m ; (b) r 1 = 37.5 μ m , r 2 = 40 μ m . Dashed lines show the interior and exterior surfaces of the LCORR. Refractive indices: n 1 = 1.33 , n 2 = 1.45 , n 3 = 1.0 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of a portion of the LCORR cross section with an outer radius of 50 μ m . To take the image, the LCORR is broken at the sensing region, mounted in UV-curable glue, and then polished. Note that the roughness on the glass surface is due to the polishing processes and does not reflect the actual structural details of the LCORR itself. (b) A picture of the experimental setup with the same LCORR as in (a) and a taper of 4 μ m in diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) WGM spectral shift while approximately 5% HF is pumped through the LCORR during the fabrication process. Inset: sensorgram for the WGM of two different radial orders during etching (the curves are vertically adjusted to make the starting point coincide). (b) Simulations of the spectral response of the TM WGM with different radial order when the wall thickness decreases. l = 2 (top), l = 3 (middle), and l = 4 (bottom). m = 350 , r 2 = 40 μ m , n 1 = 1.33 , n 2 = 1.45 , n 3 = 1.0 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

WGM spectral shift versus the change in refractive index as varying concentrations of ethanol are pumped through the LCORR. ( ) wall thickness = 3.6 μ m ; ( ) wall thickness = 3 μ m . The solid curves represent the simulation from Eq. (1) using the same wall thicknesses and radii as in experiments. Inset: (a) Sensorgram for the ( ) data set; (b) simulated sensitivity curves for the wall thickness of 2.5 μ m (bottom) and 2 μ m (top).

Equations (1)

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E m , l ( r ) = { A J m ( k 0 ( l ) n 1 r ) ( r r 1 ) B J m ( k 0 ( l ) n 2 r ) + C H m ( 1 ) ( k 0 ( l ) n 2 r ) ( r 1 r r 2 ) D H m ( 1 ) ( k 0 ( l ) n 3 r ) ( r r 2 ) ,

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