Abstract

A confocal reflectance theta line scanning microscope demonstrates imaging of nuclear and cellular detail in human epidermis in vivo. Experimentally measured line-spread functions determine the instrumental optical section thickness to be 1.7±0.1μm and the lateral resolution to be 1.0±0.1μm. Within human dermis (through full-thickness epidermis), the measured section thickness is 9.2±1.7μm and the lateral resolution is 1.7±0.1μm. An illumination line is scanned directly in the pupil of the objective lens, and the backscattered descanned light is detected with a linear array, such that the theta line scanner consists of only seven optical components.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Corcuff and J. L. Leveque, Dermatology (Basel, Switz.) 186, 50 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. R. H. Webb and F. Rogomentich, Appl. Opt. 38, 4870 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1995 (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. Corcuff and J. L. Leveque, Dermatology (Basel, Switz.) 186, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyle, A.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cavanagh, H. D.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Corcuff, P.

P. Corcuff and J. L. Leveque, Dermatology (Basel, Switz.) 186, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, S.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jester, J. V.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koester, C. J.

Lemp, M. A.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leveque, J. L.

P. Corcuff and J. L. Leveque, Dermatology (Basel, Switz.) 186, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lindek, S.

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, L.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

New, K. C.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Petroll, W. M.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogomentich, F.

Stelzer, E. H.

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb and F. Rogomentich, Appl. Opt. 38, 4870 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavislan, J. M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Dermatology (Basel, Switz.) (1)

P. Corcuff and J. L. Leveque, Dermatology (Basel, Switz.) 186, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (2)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scanning (1)

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Confocal theta line scanning microscope. The primary line is formed in the y direction (perpendicular to the page) at the focus of the objective lens and is used for imaging. The ratio u r determines sectioning, lateral resolution, and contrast, and was chosen to be 0.5.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental plot of an axial confocal theta line-spread function (LSF).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of human epidermis in vivo. Scale bars, 50 μ m .

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