Abstract

With analog scanning, time-domain low-coherence interferometry lacks precise depth information, and optical carrier generation demands a linear scanning speed. Full-field heterodyne low-coherence interferometry that uses a logarithmic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera, acousto-optic modulation, and digital depth stepping is reported, with which random regions of interest, lateral and axial, can be accessed. Furthermore, nanometer profilometry is possible through heterodyne phase retrieval of the interference signal. The approach demonstrates inexpensive yet high-precision functional machine vision offering true digital random access in three dimensions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
  2. H. Matsumoto and A. Hirai, Opt. Commun. 170, 217 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Onodera, H. Wakaumi, and Y. Ishii, Opt. Commun. 254, 52 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 24, 622 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, J. Garvey, and D. Newport, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 23 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Egan, F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, and M. J. Connelly, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 427 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

R. Onodera, H. Wakaumi, and Y. Ishii, Opt. Commun. 254, 52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, J. Garvey, and D. Newport, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Egan, F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, and M. J. Connelly, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 24, 622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsumoto and A. Hirai, Opt. Commun. 170, 217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connelly, M. J.

P. Egan, F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, and M. J. Connelly, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Egan, P.

P. Egan, F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, and M. J. Connelly, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garvey, J.

F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, J. Garvey, and D. Newport, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirai, A.

H. Matsumoto and A. Hirai, Opt. Commun. 170, 217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, Y.

R. Onodera, H. Wakaumi, and Y. Ishii, Opt. Commun. 254, 52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lakestani, F.

P. Egan, F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, and M. J. Connelly, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, J. Garvey, and D. Newport, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, H.

H. Matsumoto and A. Hirai, Opt. Commun. 170, 217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Newport, D.

F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, J. Garvey, and D. Newport, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Onodera, R.

R. Onodera, H. Wakaumi, and Y. Ishii, Opt. Commun. 254, 52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakaumi, H.

R. Onodera, H. Wakaumi, and Y. Ishii, Opt. Commun. 254, 52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Whelan, M. P.

P. Egan, F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, and M. J. Connelly, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, J. Garvey, and D. Newport, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. Matsumoto and A. Hirai, Opt. Commun. 170, 217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Onodera, H. Wakaumi, and Y. Ishii, Opt. Commun. 254, 52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, J. Garvey, and D. Newport, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Egan, F. Lakestani, M. P. Whelan, and M. J. Connelly, in Proc. SPIE 5856, 427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Experimental setup: OF optical fiber; COL, collimating lens; BS1–BS4; 50 50 beam splitters; ATT, variable attenuator; POL, polarizer; DSM, digital stepper motor; CO, camera objective; CAM, CMOS camera; other references defined in text. The reference (REF) was a plane mirror. The sample (SMP) was a polished metal gauge block.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Sample illuminated with a first-order diffracted beam from AOM1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Single digital LCI envelope at the 1.05 mm gauge block. Coherence length of the SLD, 14 μ m ; pix, pixel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Full-field LCI measurement. Each sample surface can be randomly accessed in depth by digital stepping.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Full-field LCI phase measurement of the 1.05 mm gauge block surface.

Equations (7)

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s x y ( t ) = a x y ( t ) + b x y ( t ) cos [ 2 π f c t + α x y ( t ) + ϕ x y ] ,
s a 0 ( t ) = b 0 ( t ) 2 exp { j [ 2 π f c t + α 0 ( t ) + ϕ 0 ] } .
s a 1 ( t ) = b 1 ( t ) 2 exp { j [ 2 π f c t + α 1 ( t ) + ϕ 1 ] } .
Φ = b 1 ( t ) b 0 ( t ) exp { j [ α 1 ( t ) α 0 ( t ) + ϕ 1 ϕ 0 ] } ,
Δ ϕ = arg ( Φ ) n = [ α 1 ( t ) α 0 ( t ) + ϕ 1 ϕ 0 ] ,
h ( t ) = [ 1 + 1 2 cos ( 2 π p ) ] [ 1 p ] + 3 4 π sin ( 2 π p ) ,
H ( f ) = [ sin ( π q ) π q ( q 2 1 ) ] 2 ,

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