Abstract

An all-fused-silica pressure sensor fabricated directly onto a fiber tip of 125μm diameter is described. Simple fabrication steps include only cleaving and fusion splicing. Because no chemical processes are involved, the fabrication is easy, safe, and cost effective. Issues in sensor design and loss analysis are discussed. The sensor has been tested for static pressure response, showing a sensitivity of 2.2nmpsi, a resolution of 0.01psi (68.9Pa), a hysteresis of 0.025%, and capability of operation at temperatures up to 600°C. This miniature sensor may be suitable for medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and other industrial applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Goustouridis, P. Normand, and D. Tsoukalas, Sens. Actuators A 68, 269 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Melvås, E. Kälvesten, P. Enoksson, and G. Stemme, Sens. Actuators A 97, 75 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, and M. A. Putnam, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1256 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Wolthius, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. G. Xu and J. P. Dakin, in Proc. SPIE 1795, 2 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Yu, D. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, Appl. Opt. 42, 3241 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 447 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Donlagic and E. Cibula, Opt. Lett. 30, 2071 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005; CD ROM).
  13. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, 1974).
  14. S. Nemoto and T. Makimoto, Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 447 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. D. Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, 1982).

2005 (4)

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Donlagic and E. Cibula, Opt. Lett. 30, 2071 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

P. Melvås, E. Kälvesten, P. Enoksson, and G. Stemme, Sens. Actuators A 97, 75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Goustouridis, P. Normand, and D. Tsoukalas, Sens. Actuators A 68, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, and M. A. Putnam, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. G. Xu and J. P. Dakin, in Proc. SPIE 1795, 2 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. A. Wolthius, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. Nemoto and T. Makimoto, Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 447 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Afromowitz, M. A.

R. A. Wolthius, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, and M. A. Putnam, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cibula, E.

Cooper, K.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005; CD ROM).

Cooper, K. L.

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu and J. P. Dakin, in Proc. SPIE 1795, 2 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, S.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J.

Donlagic, D.

Enoksson, P.

P. Melvås, E. Kälvesten, P. Enoksson, and G. Stemme, Sens. Actuators A 97, 75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, and M. A. Putnam, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Giovanni, M. D.

M. D. Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, 1982).

Goustouridis, D.

D. Goustouridis, P. Normand, and D. Tsoukalas, Sens. Actuators A 68, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005; CD ROM).

Hartl, J. C.

R. A. Wolthius, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, H. E.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. T.

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, and M. A. Putnam, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kälvesten, E.

P. Melvås, E. Kälvesten, P. Enoksson, and G. Stemme, Sens. Actuators A 97, 75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, and M. A. Putnam, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Kobayashi, H.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Makimoto, T.

S. Nemoto and T. Makimoto, Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 447 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, 1974).

Melvås, P.

P. Melvås, E. Kälvesten, P. Enoksson, and G. Stemme, Sens. Actuators A 97, 75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, G. L.

R. A. Wolthius, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, S.

S. Nemoto and T. Makimoto, Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 447 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Normand, P.

D. Goustouridis, P. Normand, and D. Tsoukalas, Sens. Actuators A 68, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pickrell, G.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005; CD ROM).

Putnam, M. A.

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, and M. A. Putnam, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saaski, E.

R. A. Wolthius, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Singh, H.

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, and M. A. Putnam, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sirkis, J.

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, and M. A. Putnam, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stemme, G.

P. Melvås, E. Kälvesten, P. Enoksson, and G. Stemme, Sens. Actuators A 97, 75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsoukalas, D.

D. Goustouridis, P. Normand, and D. Tsoukalas, Sens. Actuators A 68, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, D. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, Appl. Opt. 42, 3241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005; CD ROM).

Wang, X.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005; CD ROM).

Wolff, J. M.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolthius, R. A.

R. A. Wolthius, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

Xu, J.

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005; CD ROM).

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu and J. P. Dakin, in Proc. SPIE 1795, 2 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Yu, D. Kim, J. Deng, H. Xiao, and A. Wang, Appl. Opt. 42, 3241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005; CD ROM).

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005; CD ROM).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Xu, G. Pickrell, X. Wang, W. Peng, K. Cooper, and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 870 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 447 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

R. A. Wolthius, G. L. Mitchell, E. Saaski, J. C. Hartl, and M. A. Afromowitz, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, and M. A. Putnam, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Zhou, S. Dasgupta, H. Kobayashi, J. M. Wolff, H. E. Jackson, and J. T. Boyd, Opt. Eng. 40, 598 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Nemoto and T. Makimoto, Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 447 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. L. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Proc. SPIE 5998, 169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu and J. P. Dakin, in Proc. SPIE 1795, 2 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (2)

D. Goustouridis, P. Normand, and D. Tsoukalas, Sens. Actuators A 68, 269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Melvås, E. Kälvesten, P. Enoksson, and G. Stemme, Sens. Actuators A 97, 75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

X. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Zhu, B. Yu, M. Han, K. Cooper, G. Pickrell, and A. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) 2005 (Optical Society of America, 2005; CD ROM).

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, 1974).

M. D. Giovanni, Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook (Marcel Dekker, 1982).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of a fiber tip pressure sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Decrease in power transmission coefficient as the longitudinal displacement (cavity length) increases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

System setup for static pressure test. PSI, pressure generator–controller.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Sensor pressure response from 20 psi ( 137.9 kPa ) to 30 psi ( 206.8 kPa ) for three cycles and (b) enlargement from 28.725 to 28.738 psi , illustrating the small amount of hysteresis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature dependence of the sensor.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = 4 [ 4 Z 2 + ( w 1 2 w 2 2 ) ] [ 4 Z 2 + ( w 2 2 + w 1 2 w 2 2 ) ] 2 + 4 Z 2 ( w 2 2 w 1 2 ) ,
Z = L n 3 k w 1 w 2 .
w a = 0.65 + 1.619 V 3 2 + 2.879 V 6 ,
Δ L = 3 ( 1 μ 2 ) R 4 16 E h 3 Δ P ,

Metrics