Abstract

A new, optically addressed deformable mirror device is demonstrated. The device consists of a pixellated metalized polymeric membrane mirror supported above an optically addressed photoconductive substrate. A conductive transparent ZnO layer is deposited on the back side of the substrate. A very high-frequency AC bias is applied between the membrane and the back electrode of the device. The membrane is deformed when the back of the device is illuminated because of impedance and bias redistribution between two cascaded impedances. We fabricated, demonstrated, and modeled the operation of this device.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Warde, J. E. Hubbard, Jr., G. Genetti, L. Lerman, and W. Loizides, in Proc. SPIE 1910, 270 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Warde and J. E. Hubbard, Jr., in Proc. SPIE 2223, 544 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Clark, MRS Bull. 26(4), 320 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Bifano, P. Bierden, H. Zhu, S. Cornelissen, and J. H. Kim, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1472 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

2004 (2)

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, H. Zhu, S. Cornelissen, and J. H. Kim, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Clark, MRS Bull. 26(4), 320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Warde and J. E. Hubbard, Jr., in Proc. SPIE 2223, 544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. Warde, J. E. Hubbard, Jr., G. Genetti, L. Lerman, and W. Loizides, in Proc. SPIE 1910, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bierden, P.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, H. Zhu, S. Cornelissen, and J. H. Kim, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, H. Zhu, S. Cornelissen, and J. H. Kim, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N.

N. Clark, MRS Bull. 26(4), 320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cornelissen, S.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, H. Zhu, S. Cornelissen, and J. H. Kim, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drehman, A.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Genetti, G.

C. Warde, J. E. Hubbard, Jr., G. Genetti, L. Lerman, and W. Loizides, in Proc. SPIE 1910, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goodhue, W.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Haji-Saeed, B.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Hubbard, J. E.

C. Warde and J. E. Hubbard, Jr., in Proc. SPIE 2223, 544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Warde, J. E. Hubbard, Jr., G. Genetti, L. Lerman, and W. Loizides, in Proc. SPIE 1910, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Khoury, J.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Kierstead, J.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Kim, J. H.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, H. Zhu, S. Cornelissen, and J. H. Kim, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolluru, R.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Leon, R.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Lerman, L.

C. Warde, J. E. Hubbard, Jr., G. Genetti, L. Lerman, and W. Loizides, in Proc. SPIE 1910, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Loizides, W.

C. Warde, J. E. Hubbard, Jr., G. Genetti, L. Lerman, and W. Loizides, in Proc. SPIE 1910, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pyburn, D.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Sengupta, S. K.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Testorf, M.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Warde, C.

C. Warde and J. E. Hubbard, Jr., in Proc. SPIE 2223, 544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Warde, J. E. Hubbard, Jr., G. Genetti, L. Lerman, and W. Loizides, in Proc. SPIE 1910, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woods, C. L.

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Zhu, H.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, H. Zhu, S. Cornelissen, and J. H. Kim, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

N. Clark, MRS Bull. 26(4), 320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, H. Zhu, S. Cornelissen, and J. H. Kim, in Proc. SPIE 5490, 1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, in Proc. SPIE 5437, 115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Warde, J. E. Hubbard, Jr., G. Genetti, L. Lerman, and W. Loizides, in Proc. SPIE 1910, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Warde and J. E. Hubbard, Jr., in Proc. SPIE 2223, 544 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B. Haji-Saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high-frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," Appl. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photoconductive optically controlled spatial light modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MEMS device driven by AC voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left, displacement versus AC + DC ; right, displacement versus intensity of light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A, Fringes of 2 mm × 2 mm sample focused on one pixel by a lens and before laser illumination on the back; B, same fringes after laser illumination; C, the difference.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V 1 = V Z 1 Z 1 + Z 2 ,
C 1 π ϵ 0 r 1 2 s + π ϵ 0 r 1 2 h 2 s 2 , h = ϵ 0 r 1 2 V 2 32 T s 2 ,
V 1 = V 1 + L j ω c 1 q μ n ( n + Δ n ) A .
V 1 2 q 2 μ n 2 ( n + Δ n ) 2 A 2 V 2 q 2 μ n 2 ( n + Δ n ) 2 A 2 + L 2 ω 2 ( π ϵ 0 r 1 2 s ) 2 .
Δ h = h h = ϵ 0 3 r 1 6 q 2 μ n 2 A 2 V 2 L 2 ω 2 π 2 ( 2 n Δ n + Δ n 2 ) 32 T [ s 2 q 2 μ n 2 ( n + Δ n ) 2 A 2 + L 2 ω 2 π 2 ϵ 0 2 r 1 4 ] [ s 2 q 2 μ n 2 n 2 A 2 + L 2 ω 2 π 2 ϵ 0 2 r 1 4 ] ,

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