Abstract

We report the fabrication and characterization of a new type of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based on large-pitch (12μm) kagome lattice cladding. The optical characteristics of the 19-cell, 7-cell, and single-cell core defect fibers include broad optical transmission bands covering the visible and near-IR parts of the spectrum with relatively low loss and low chromatic dispersion, no detectable surface modes and high confinement of light in the core. Various applications of such a novel fiber are also discussed, including gas sensing, quantum optics, and high harmonic generation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Benabid and J. C. Knight, "Improvements in and relating to microstructured optical fibres," European patent WO2004001461 (December 31, 2003).
  3. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Ghosh, J. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 8277 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Crystal Fiber A/S datasheet, http://www.crystal-fibre.com/products/airguide.shtm.

2005 (5)

2004 (1)

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benabid, A. F.

A. F. Benabid and J. C. Knight, "Improvements in and relating to microstructured optical fibres," European patent WO2004001461 (December 31, 2003).

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 8277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borrelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couny, F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farr, L.

Gaeta, A. L.

S. Ghosh, J. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, J. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 8277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Benabid and J. C. Knight, "Improvements in and relating to microstructured optical fibres," European patent WO2004001461 (December 31, 2003).

Koch, K. W.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Light, P. S.

Mangan, B.

Mangan, B. J.

Mason, M.

Muller, D.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouzounov, D. G.

S. Ghosh, J. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, P.

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 5694 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 8277 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabert, H.

Sharping, J.

S. Ghosh, J. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. M.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

Venkataraman, N.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

West, J. A.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D.

Williams, D. P.

Nature (2)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, J. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 298, 399 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, Science 301, 1702 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. F. Benabid and J. C. Knight, "Improvements in and relating to microstructured optical fibres," European patent WO2004001461 (December 31, 2003).

Crystal Fiber A/S datasheet, http://www.crystal-fibre.com/products/airguide.shtm.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A)–(C) SEM and (D)–(F) optical micrographs of the single-cell, 7-cell, and 19-cell defect fibers. The samples are 2 cm long and coupled in transmission to a tungsten lamp.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Transmission (black curve) and attenuation (gray curve) spectrum for the 19-cell defect fiber. (B) Single-cell defect fiber transmission spectrum. (C) Measured group delay (gray dots), polynomial fit (gray curve), and dispersion fit (black curve) of a 90 cm long single-cell defect fiber. The group delay data for the IR band are upshifted by 0.5 mm for clarity. The peak at 1064 nm in the transmission profiles comes from the supercontinuum source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimentally imaged near-field profiles of the selectively excited (A) fundamentallike and (B), (C) higher-order core modes for the single-cell defect fiber. (D) Log-scale intensity cross section of the fundamental mode. The hashed gray regions indicate the position of the core walls. The gray curve is a best Gaussian fit. Inset: Cross-section position.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical Dimensions of Kagome HC-PCFs a

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