Abstract

We demonstrate the possibility of serially guiding and sorting nanometer-sized particles without the use of any external control. The working principle is based on an equilibrium between scattering and binding forces, the latter depending on the properties of the particles. A configuration is proposed that utilizes this property and is shown to efficiently sort small particles as function of their size.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

B. A. Kemp, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113903 (2006).
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T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

Y. Zhao, Q. Zhan, Y. Zhang, and Y.-P. Li, Opt. Lett. 30, 848 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Kemp, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, Opt. Express 13, 9280 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ferrari, V. Emiliani, D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, M. Zahid, C. Durieux, M. Coppey-Moisan, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, S. H. Tao, J. Bu, H. Wang, X. Peng, and H. B. Niu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 084104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, M. Danailov, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Zemánek, V. Karásek, and A. Sasso, Opt. Commun. 240, 401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelton, K. Ladavac, and D. Grier, Phys. Rev. E 70, 031108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, E. Tu, N. D. Hagen, C. A. Schnabel, M. J. Paliotti, W. S. Hoo, P. M. Nguyen, J. R. Kohrumel, W. F. Butler, M. Chachisvillis, and P. J. Marchand, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

B. A. Koss and D. G. Grier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. Melville, G. F. Milne, G. C. Spalding, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 11, 3562 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

P. J. Rodrigo, R. L. Eriksen, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 10, 1550 (2002).
[PubMed]

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Phys. Rev. B 64, 035422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

J.-M. Fournier, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, in Proc. SPIE 2406, 101 (1995).

1994 (1)

K. Svoboda and S. M. Bloc, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1971 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bloc, S. M.

K. Svoboda and S. M. Bloc, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bu, J.

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, S. H. Tao, J. Bu, H. Wang, X. Peng, and H. B. Niu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 084104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burns, M. M.

J.-M. Fournier, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, in Proc. SPIE 2406, 101 (1995).

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Businaro, L.

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Butler, W. F.

H. Zhang, E. Tu, N. D. Hagen, C. A. Schnabel, M. J. Paliotti, W. S. Hoo, P. M. Nguyen, J. R. Kohrumel, W. F. Butler, M. Chachisvillis, and P. J. Marchand, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, M. Danailov, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chachisvillis, M.

H. Zhang, E. Tu, N. D. Hagen, C. A. Schnabel, M. J. Paliotti, W. S. Hoo, P. M. Nguyen, J. R. Kohrumel, W. F. Butler, M. Chachisvillis, and P. J. Marchand, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaumet, P. C.

P. C. Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Phys. Rev. B 64, 035422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Cojoc, D.

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ferrari, V. Emiliani, D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, M. Zahid, C. Durieux, M. Coppey-Moisan, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, M. Danailov, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coppey-Moisan, M.

E. Ferrari, V. Emiliani, D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, M. Zahid, C. Durieux, M. Coppey-Moisan, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Danailov, M.

D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, M. Danailov, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daria, V. R.

Dholakia, K.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. H. Melville, G. F. Milne, G. C. Spalding, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and D. McGloin, Opt. Express 11, 3562 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ferrari, V. Emiliani, D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, M. Zahid, C. Durieux, M. Coppey-Moisan, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, M. Danailov, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durieux, C.

E. Ferrari, V. Emiliani, D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, M. Zahid, C. Durieux, M. Coppey-Moisan, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Emiliani, V.

E. Ferrari, V. Emiliani, D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, M. Zahid, C. Durieux, M. Coppey-Moisan, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, R. L.

Ferrari, E.

E. Ferrari, V. Emiliani, D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, M. Zahid, C. Durieux, M. Coppey-Moisan, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, M. Danailov, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, J.-M.

J.-M. Fournier, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, in Proc. SPIE 2406, 101 (1995).

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garbin, V.

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ferrari, V. Emiliani, D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, M. Zahid, C. Durieux, M. Coppey-Moisan, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garces-Chavez, V.

J. Arlt, V. Garces-Chavez, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 197, 239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garcés-Chávez, V.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glückstad, J.

Golovchenko, J. A.

J.-M. Fournier, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, in Proc. SPIE 2406, 101 (1995).

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D.

M. Pelton, K. Ladavac, and D. Grier, Phys. Rev. E 70, 031108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

B. A. Koss and D. G. Grier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Kemp, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Kemp, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, Opt. Express 13, 9280 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunn-Moore, F. J.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, N. D.

H. Zhang, E. Tu, N. D. Hagen, C. A. Schnabel, M. J. Paliotti, W. S. Hoo, P. M. Nguyen, J. R. Kohrumel, W. F. Butler, M. Chachisvillis, and P. J. Marchand, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, S. J.

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoo, W. S.

H. Zhang, E. Tu, N. D. Hagen, C. A. Schnabel, M. J. Paliotti, W. S. Hoo, P. M. Nguyen, J. R. Kohrumel, W. F. Butler, M. Chachisvillis, and P. J. Marchand, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karásek, V.

P. Zemánek, V. Karásek, and A. Sasso, Opt. Commun. 240, 401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kemp, B. A.

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Kemp, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Kemp, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, Opt. Express 13, 9280 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohrumel, J. R.

H. Zhang, E. Tu, N. D. Hagen, C. A. Schnabel, M. J. Paliotti, W. S. Hoo, P. M. Nguyen, J. R. Kohrumel, W. F. Butler, M. Chachisvillis, and P. J. Marchand, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, J. A.

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2324 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Kemp, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 20, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Kemp, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, Opt. Express 13, 9280 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Kong, Electromagnetic Wave Theory (EMW, 2005).

Koss, B. A.

B. A. Koss and D. G. Grier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ladavac, K.

M. Pelton, K. Ladavac, and D. Grier, Phys. Rev. E 70, 031108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-P.

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malureanu, R.

D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, E. Ferrari, R. Malureanu, M. Danailov, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, P. J.

H. Zhang, E. Tu, N. D. Hagen, C. A. Schnabel, M. J. Paliotti, W. S. Hoo, P. M. Nguyen, J. R. Kohrumel, W. F. Butler, M. Chachisvillis, and P. J. Marchand, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGloin, D.

Melville, H.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melville, O. H.

Milne, G.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milne, G. F.

Nguyen, P. M.

H. Zhang, E. Tu, N. D. Hagen, C. A. Schnabel, M. J. Paliotti, W. S. Hoo, P. M. Nguyen, J. R. Kohrumel, W. F. Butler, M. Chachisvillis, and P. J. Marchand, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

P. C. Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, Phys. Rev. B 64, 035422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niu, H. B.

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, S. H. Tao, J. Bu, H. Wang, X. Peng, and H. B. Niu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 084104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paliotti, M. J.

H. Zhang, E. Tu, N. D. Hagen, C. A. Schnabel, M. J. Paliotti, W. S. Hoo, P. M. Nguyen, J. R. Kohrumel, W. F. Butler, M. Chachisvillis, and P. J. Marchand, Biomed. Microdevices 6, 11 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papagiakoumou, E.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, L.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelton, M.

M. Pelton, K. Ladavac, and D. Grier, Phys. Rev. E 70, 031108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, S. H. Tao, J. Bu, H. Wang, X. Peng, and H. B. Niu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 084104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riches, A. C.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the guiding and sorting geometry: an incident plane wave propagates along y ̂ onto a series of ten fixed vertical particles and one free particle allowed to move in the ( x y ) plane. The force on the free particle, computed by taking into account all interaction between all particles, dictates its motion. Background: total intensity produced by the incident plane wave and the ten fixed particles only.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Propagation channels in space of a free cylindrical particle of parameters ( ϵ p , a ) = ( 2.56 ϵ 0 , 10 nm ) . The starting points are located at various x positions (every 20 nm in the figure) for y = 100 nm and the trajectory of the free particle is traced by computing the force acting on it and displacing the particle accordingly.[30]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative exit position of the particle for various sizes and permittivity. The absolute reference positions are x 0 ( 1 ) ( a = 5 nm ) = 534 nm and x 0 ( 2 ) ( a = 5 nm ) = 1032 nm for ϵ b = 1.69 ϵ 0 and x 0 ( 1 ) ( a = 5 nm ) = 659 nm for ϵ b = ϵ 0 . The error bars (not shown for the case of ϵ b = ϵ 0 for clarity) illustrate the drift in positions of a minority of particles whose starting positions are toward the right edge of the right- and left-pointing arrows in Fig. 2 (close to 460 nm for l = 1 and close to 990 nm for l = 2 ).

Equations (1)

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x rel ( l ) ( a ) = x 0 ( l ) ( a ) x 0 ( l ) ( a = 5 nm ) ,

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