Abstract

A crucial issue in coherent x-ray diffraction imaging experiments is how to increase the signal-to-noise ratio when measuring relatively weak diffraction intensities from a nonperiodic object. A novel crystal guard aperture is described that makes use of a pair of multiple-bounce crystal optics to eliminate unwanted parasitic scattering background. This background is often produced by upstream optical elements such as a coherent-beam defining aperture. Recent experimental observation and theoretical analysis confirm the effectiveness of the crystal guard aperture method with coherence-preserved wave propagation through the crystal guard aperture and dramatically reduced scattering background in coherent x-ray diffraction images.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Willams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, Nature 442, 63 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao and Q. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 61, 373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xiao, C. Y. Han, W. K. Kwok, H. H. Wang, U. Welp, J. Wang, and G. Crabtree, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

H. He, S. Marchesini, M. Howells, U. Weierstall, G. Hembree, and J. C. H. Spence, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 59, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, K. Hogdson, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 6641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1971 (1)

A. M. Afanas'ev and V. G. Kohn, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 27, 421 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 238 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Afanas'ev, A. M.

A. M. Afanas'ev and V. G. Kohn, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 27, 421 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Beetz, T.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonse, U.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 238 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 61, 373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y. S.

R. Khachatryan, A. Tkachuk, Y. S. Chu, J. Qian, A. Macrander, in Proc. SPIE 5537, 171 (2004).

Crabtree, G.

Z. Xiao, C. Y. Han, W. K. Kwok, H. H. Wang, U. Welp, J. Wang, and G. Crabtree, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elser, V.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faulkner, H. M. L.

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Han, C. Y.

Z. Xiao, C. Y. Han, W. K. Kwok, H. H. Wang, U. Welp, J. Wang, and G. Crabtree, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harder, R.

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Willams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, Nature 442, 63 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, M.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 238 (1965).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

H. He, S. Marchesini, M. Howells, U. Weierstall, G. Hembree, and J. C. H. Spence, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 59, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hembree, G.

H. He, S. Marchesini, M. Howells, U. Weierstall, G. Hembree, and J. C. H. Spence, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 59, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hodgson, K. O.

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogdson, K.

J. Miao, K. Hogdson, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 6641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. He, S. Marchesini, M. Howells, U. Weierstall, G. Hembree, and J. C. H. Spence, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 59, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khachatryan, R.

R. Khachatryan, A. Tkachuk, Y. S. Chu, J. Qian, A. Macrander, in Proc. SPIE 5537, 171 (2004).

Kirz, J.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohn, V. G.

A. M. Afanas'ev and V. G. Kohn, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 27, 421 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, W. K.

Z. Xiao, C. Y. Han, W. K. Kwok, H. H. Wang, U. Welp, J. Wang, and G. Crabtree, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larabell, C. A.

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeGros, M. A.

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, E.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macrander, A.

R. Khachatryan, A. Tkachuk, Y. S. Chu, J. Qian, A. Macrander, in Proc. SPIE 5537, 171 (2004).

Marchesini, S.

H. He, S. Marchesini, M. Howells, U. Weierstall, G. Hembree, and J. C. H. Spence, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 59, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, K. Hogdson, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 6641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neiman, A. M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishino, Y.

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 61, 373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, D.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A. G.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 61, 373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, M. A.

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Willams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, Nature 442, 63 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, J.

R. Khachatryan, A. Tkachuk, Y. S. Chu, J. Qian, A. Macrander, in Proc. SPIE 5537, 171 (2004).

Quiney, H. M.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 61, 373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I. K.

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Willams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, Nature 442, 63 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodenburg, J. M.

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayre, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, K. Hogdson, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 6641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

X. Xiao and Q. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spence, J. C. H.

H. He, S. Marchesini, M. Howells, U. Weierstall, G. Hembree, and J. C. H. Spence, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 59, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, P.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tkachuk, A.

R. Khachatryan, A. Tkachuk, Y. S. Chu, J. Qian, A. Macrander, in Proc. SPIE 5537, 171 (2004).

Vartanyants, I. A.

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Willams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, Nature 442, 63 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. H.

Z. Xiao, C. Y. Han, W. K. Kwok, H. H. Wang, U. Welp, J. Wang, and G. Crabtree, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Z. Xiao, C. Y. Han, W. K. Kwok, H. H. Wang, U. Welp, J. Wang, and G. Crabtree, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weierstall, U.

H. He, S. Marchesini, M. Howells, U. Weierstall, G. Hembree, and J. C. H. Spence, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 59, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

Z. Xiao, C. Y. Han, W. K. Kwok, H. H. Wang, U. Welp, J. Wang, and G. Crabtree, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willams, G. J.

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Willams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, Nature 442, 63 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao and Q. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Z.

Z. Xiao, C. Y. Han, W. K. Kwok, H. H. Wang, U. Welp, J. Wang, and G. Crabtree, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A (3)

H. He, S. Marchesini, M. Howells, U. Weierstall, G. Hembree, and J. C. H. Spence, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 59, 143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 61, 373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Afanas'ev and V. G. Kohn, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 27, 421 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 238 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

Z. Xiao, C. Y. Han, W. K. Kwok, H. H. Wang, U. Welp, J. Wang, and G. Crabtree, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Willams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, Nature 442, 63 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

X. Xiao and Q. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, K. Hogdson, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 6641 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Rev. Biophys. (1)

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, Q. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Khachatryan, A. Tkachuk, Y. S. Chu, J. Qian, A. Macrander, in Proc. SPIE 5537, 171 (2004).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Crystal guard edge aperture. (a) Sketch of the experimental setup. The amplitudes and phases of pinhole diffraction wave E O and crystal diffraction wave E H are given in (b) at the sample position and (c) at the CCD position.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results. Diffraction patterns are shown for a (a) 10 μ m pinhole, (b) lead microparticle with CBDA-PGA setup, (c) 10 μ m pinhole with CGA, and (d) lead microparticle with the CBDA-CGA setup. The display palettes of (a) and (c), (b) and (d) are set the same. The scatter on the right side in (c) was blocked by the beam stop. The intensities are shown on a logarithmic scale.

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