Abstract

Fluorescence imaging of intrinsic fluorophores of tissue is a powerful method to assess metabolic changes at the cellular and intracellular levels. At the same time, exogenous phosphorescent probes can be used to accurately measure intravascular tissue oxygenation. Heart failure is the leading cause of death in America. A rat heart can potentially model the human heart to study failures or other abnormalities optically. We report simultaneous fluorescence and phosphorescence measurements performed on a rat heart. We have used two different optical systems to acquire fluorescence signals of flavoprotein and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide—the two intrinsic fluorophores of mitochondria—and the phosphorescence signal of an intravascular oxygen probe to extract intracellular and intravascular metabolism loads, respectively.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. H. Harken, C. H. Barlow, W. R. Harden, and B. Chance, Am. J. Cardiol. 42, 954 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. F. Ashruf, C. Ince, and H. A. Bruining, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 277, H532 (1999).
  3. C. H. Barlow, E. Bailey, K. A. Kelly, and J. J. Kelly(Plenum, 1998).
  4. O. G. Bjornsson, K. Kobayashi, and J. R. Williamson, Am. J. Physiol. 252, 1235 (1987).
  5. B. Chance, B. Schoener, K. Krejci, H. Russmann, W. Wesemann, H. Schnitger, and Th. Bucher, Biochem. Z. 341, 325 (1965).
  6. I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Chance, D. Mayer, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 111 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. F. Wilson and S. A. Vinogradov, Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence (Marcel Dekker, 2003).
  9. S. A. Vinogradov, M. A. Fernandez-Seara, B. W. Dugan, and D. F. Wilson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3396 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. W. Heineman and R. S. Balaban, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 42, 523 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. W. Heineman and R. S. Balaban, Am. J. Physiol. 264, H433 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  12. M. Ranji, D. L. Jaggard, and B. Chance, in Proc. SPIE 6087, 60870K (2006).

2003 (1)

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. A. Vinogradov, M. A. Fernandez-Seara, B. W. Dugan, and D. F. Wilson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. F. Ashruf, C. Ince, and H. A. Bruining, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 277, H532 (1999).

1993 (1)

F. W. Heineman and R. S. Balaban, Am. J. Physiol. 264, H433 (1993).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

F. W. Heineman and R. S. Balaban, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 42, 523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

O. G. Bjornsson, K. Kobayashi, and J. R. Williamson, Am. J. Physiol. 252, 1235 (1987).

1978 (1)

A. H. Harken, C. H. Barlow, W. R. Harden, and B. Chance, Am. J. Cardiol. 42, 954 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

B. Chance, D. Mayer, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

B. Chance, B. Schoener, K. Krejci, H. Russmann, W. Wesemann, H. Schnitger, and Th. Bucher, Biochem. Z. 341, 325 (1965).

Ashruf, J. F.

J. F. Ashruf, C. Ince, and H. A. Bruining, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 277, H532 (1999).

Bailey, E.

C. H. Barlow, E. Bailey, K. A. Kelly, and J. J. Kelly(Plenum, 1998).

Balaban, R. S.

F. W. Heineman and R. S. Balaban, Am. J. Physiol. 264, H433 (1993).
[PubMed]

F. W. Heineman and R. S. Balaban, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 42, 523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, C. H.

A. H. Harken, C. H. Barlow, W. R. Harden, and B. Chance, Am. J. Cardiol. 42, 954 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Barlow, E. Bailey, K. A. Kelly, and J. J. Kelly(Plenum, 1998).

Bjornsson, O. G.

O. G. Bjornsson, K. Kobayashi, and J. R. Williamson, Am. J. Physiol. 252, 1235 (1987).

Bruining, H. A.

J. F. Ashruf, C. Ince, and H. A. Bruining, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 277, H532 (1999).

Bucher, Th.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, K. Krejci, H. Russmann, W. Wesemann, H. Schnitger, and Th. Bucher, Biochem. Z. 341, 325 (1965).

Chance, B.

A. H. Harken, C. H. Barlow, W. R. Harden, and B. Chance, Am. J. Cardiol. 42, 954 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, D. Mayer, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, B. Schoener, K. Krejci, H. Russmann, W. Wesemann, H. Schnitger, and Th. Bucher, Biochem. Z. 341, 325 (1965).

M. Ranji, D. L. Jaggard, and B. Chance, in Proc. SPIE 6087, 60870K (2006).

Dugan, B. W.

S. A. Vinogradov, M. A. Fernandez-Seara, B. W. Dugan, and D. F. Wilson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Seara, M. A.

S. A. Vinogradov, M. A. Fernandez-Seara, B. W. Dugan, and D. F. Wilson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Graham, N.

B. Chance, D. Mayer, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Harden, W. R.

A. H. Harken, C. H. Barlow, W. R. Harden, and B. Chance, Am. J. Cardiol. 42, 954 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harken, A. H.

A. H. Harken, C. H. Barlow, W. R. Harden, and B. Chance, Am. J. Cardiol. 42, 954 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heineman, F. W.

F. W. Heineman and R. S. Balaban, Am. J. Physiol. 264, H433 (1993).
[PubMed]

F. W. Heineman and R. S. Balaban, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 42, 523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ince, C.

J. F. Ashruf, C. Ince, and H. A. Bruining, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 277, H532 (1999).

Jaggard, D. L.

M. Ranji, D. L. Jaggard, and B. Chance, in Proc. SPIE 6087, 60870K (2006).

Kelly, J. J.

C. H. Barlow, E. Bailey, K. A. Kelly, and J. J. Kelly(Plenum, 1998).

Kelly, K. A.

C. H. Barlow, E. Bailey, K. A. Kelly, and J. J. Kelly(Plenum, 1998).

Kim, E.

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

O. G. Bjornsson, K. Kobayashi, and J. R. Williamson, Am. J. Physiol. 252, 1235 (1987).

Krejci, K.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, K. Krejci, H. Russmann, W. Wesemann, H. Schnitger, and Th. Bucher, Biochem. Z. 341, 325 (1965).

Legallais, V.

B. Chance, D. Mayer, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, D.

B. Chance, D. Mayer, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ranji, M.

M. Ranji, D. L. Jaggard, and B. Chance, in Proc. SPIE 6087, 60870K (2006).

Rietveld, I. B.

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russmann, H.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, K. Krejci, H. Russmann, W. Wesemann, H. Schnitger, and Th. Bucher, Biochem. Z. 341, 325 (1965).

Schnitger, H.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, K. Krejci, H. Russmann, W. Wesemann, H. Schnitger, and Th. Bucher, Biochem. Z. 341, 325 (1965).

Schoener, B.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, K. Krejci, H. Russmann, W. Wesemann, H. Schnitger, and Th. Bucher, Biochem. Z. 341, 325 (1965).

Vinogradov, S. A.

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vinogradov, M. A. Fernandez-Seara, B. W. Dugan, and D. F. Wilson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Wilson and S. A. Vinogradov, Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

Wesemann, W.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, K. Krejci, H. Russmann, W. Wesemann, H. Schnitger, and Th. Bucher, Biochem. Z. 341, 325 (1965).

Williamson, J. R.

O. G. Bjornsson, K. Kobayashi, and J. R. Williamson, Am. J. Physiol. 252, 1235 (1987).

Wilson, D. F.

S. A. Vinogradov, M. A. Fernandez-Seara, B. W. Dugan, and D. F. Wilson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Wilson and S. A. Vinogradov, Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

Am. J. Cardiol. (1)

A. H. Harken, C. H. Barlow, W. R. Harden, and B. Chance, Am. J. Cardiol. 42, 954 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. (2)

O. G. Bjornsson, K. Kobayashi, and J. R. Williamson, Am. J. Physiol. 252, 1235 (1987).

F. W. Heineman and R. S. Balaban, Am. J. Physiol. 264, H433 (1993).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

J. F. Ashruf, C. Ince, and H. A. Bruining, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 277, H532 (1999).

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (1)

F. W. Heineman and R. S. Balaban, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 42, 523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Biochem. Z. (1)

B. Chance, B. Schoener, K. Krejci, H. Russmann, W. Wesemann, H. Schnitger, and Th. Bucher, Biochem. Z. 341, 325 (1965).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. A. Vinogradov, M. A. Fernandez-Seara, B. W. Dugan, and D. F. Wilson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3396 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, D. Mayer, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 111 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tetrahedron (1)

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. H. Barlow, E. Bailey, K. A. Kelly, and J. J. Kelly(Plenum, 1998).

D. F. Wilson and S. A. Vinogradov, Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

M. Ranji, D. L. Jaggard, and B. Chance, in Proc. SPIE 6087, 60870K (2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-wavelength time-shared fluorometer in rat heart fluorescence measurements and digital time-domain phosphorometer to monitor intravascular pO 2 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulataneous fluorescence–phosphorescence measurements on a rat heart (upper center).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NADH, FP fluorescence, and O 2 probe phosphorescence time events.

Equations (1)

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T T 0 = 1 + K q T 0 [ O 2 ] ,

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