Abstract

Most of the known methods to measure the nonlinear optical properties of materials deal with the bulk properties, but there are many demanding applications that require those measurements to be done on a single particle or a single molecule. We report a novel application of nonlinear optics to measure the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of nanoparticles in solutions. By measuring the power of the third harmonic generated in a diluted solution of nanoparticles, both the size and χ(3) can be extracted from a simple set of measurements.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  2. M. A. Van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Y. Maillard, Rev. Med. Microbiol. 12, 63 (2001).
  4. X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, Opt. Commun. 240, 437 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. V. Petrov, B. S. Santos, G. A. Pereira, and C. D. Donega, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5325 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, and E. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3982 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 170 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. A. Van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, S. M. Saltiel, A. Faustov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, Opt. Commun. 240, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. V. Petrov, B. S. Santos, G. A. Pereira, and C. D. Donega, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3982 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1999 (1)

S. Sauvage, P. Boukaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, G. M. Lemaitre, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Zhang, Acc. Chem. Res. 30, 423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Tsang, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. 169, 169 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

Baba, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, Opt. Commun. 240, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barille, R.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bentolila, L.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boukaud, P.

S. Sauvage, P. Boukaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, G. M. Lemaitre, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R.

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

Canioni, L.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cremer, C.

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. 169, 169 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Donega, C. D.

D. V. Petrov, B. S. Santos, G. A. Pereira, and C. D. Donega, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doose, S.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faustov, A.

Gambhir, S.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, Opt. Commun. 240, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glotin, F.

S. Sauvage, P. Boukaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, G. M. Lemaitre, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. 169, 169 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A. A.

Kuroda, H.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, Opt. Commun. 240, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lemaitre, G. M.

S. Sauvage, P. Boukaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, G. M. Lemaitre, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippitz, M.

M. A. Van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maillard, J. Y.

J. Y. Maillard, Rev. Med. Microbiol. 12, 63 (2001).

Michalet, X.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orrit, M.

M. A. Van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortega, J. M.

S. Sauvage, P. Boukaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, G. M. Lemaitre, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, G. A.

D. V. Petrov, B. S. Santos, G. A. Pereira, and C. D. Donega, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D. V.

D. V. Petrov, B. S. Santos, G. A. Pereira, and C. D. Donega, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, G. I.

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, S. M. Saltiel, A. Faustov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3982 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pinaud, F. F.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prazeres, R.

S. Sauvage, P. Boukaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, G. M. Lemaitre, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reiner, G.

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. 169, 169 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, G.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, Opt. Commun. 240, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Said, A.

Saltiel, S. M.

Santos, B. S.

D. V. Petrov, B. S. Santos, G. A. Pereira, and C. D. Donega, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarger, L.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, S.

S. Sauvage, P. Boukaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, G. M. Lemaitre, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shcheslavskiy, V. I.

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, S. M. Saltiel, A. Faustov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3982 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. A. Ivanov, Opt. Lett. 26, 1999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

Stelzer, E. H. K.

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. 169, 169 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, D.

Sundaresan, G.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, Opt. Commun. 240, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thierry-Mieg, V.

S. Sauvage, P. Boukaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, G. M. Lemaitre, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, T.

T. Tsang, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsav, J.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dijk, M. A.

M. A. Van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Stryland, E.

Weiss, S.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, V.

Wu, A.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. V.

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, S. M. Saltiel, A. Faustov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3982 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. A. Ivanov, Opt. Lett. 26, 1999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Acc. Chem. Res. 30, 423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (2)

J. Zhang, Acc. Chem. Res. 30, 423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, Acc. Chem. Res. 38, 594 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3982 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 170 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. W. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. 169, 169 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

D. V. Petrov, B. S. Santos, G. A. Pereira, and C. D. Donega, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 5325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, Opt. Commun. 240, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Tsang, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Sauvage, P. Boukaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, G. M. Lemaitre, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Med. Microbiol. (1)

J. Y. Maillard, Rev. Med. Microbiol. 12, 63 (2001).

Science (1)

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. Bentolila, J. Tsav, S. Doose, J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. Wu, S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, Science 307, 538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. A, air; G, glass; S, solution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Third-order nonlinear susceptibility as a function of a diameter of the spheres. Solid line, value of χ ( 3 ) for fused silica from the literature; dashed line, χ ( 3 ) from volume measurements; solid rectangle, error of χ ( 3 ) from volume measurements. Inset, TH intensity generated by a single particle in the index-matching liquid as a function of particle diameter; dashed line, forth-power dependence.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 3 ( 2 ) P 3 ( 1 ) = 1 + ( t 1 3 t 3 ) [ ( t 1 3 t 3 ) n 3 ω 2 ( n ω N ω ) χ m ( 3 ) 2 J m 2 + n 3 ω N 3 ω n ω N ω χ g l ( 3 ) χ m ( 3 ) ( J g l J m * + J g l * J m ) ] χ g l ( 3 ) 2 J g l 2 N 3 ω 2 ,
P 3 = 1024 n 3 c 2 n 1 3 w 0 6 ( γ s γ m ) 2 R 4 P 1 3 ,
χ eff ( 3 ) = ( 1 p ) χ m ( 3 ) + p χ s ( 3 ) ,

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