A double-clad photonic crystal fiber coupler is fabricated by the fused tapered method, showing a low excess loss of and a splitting ratio of 97/3 over the entire visible and near-infrared wavelength range. In addition to the property of splitting the laser power, the double-clad feature of the coupler facilitates the separation of a near-infrared single-mode beam from a visible multimode beam, which is ideal for nonlinear optical microscopy imaging. In conjunction with a gradient-index lens, this coupler is used to construct a miniaturized microscope based on two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation. Three-dimensional nonlinear optical images demonstrate potential applications of the coupler to compact all-fiber and nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy.
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