Abstract

In this study, we investigated the picosecond optical pulse generation from a 1064-nm distributed feedback laser diode under strong gain switching. The spectrum of the generated optical pulses was manipulated in two different ways: (i) by extracting the short-wavelength components of the optical pulse spectrum and (ii) by compensating for spectral chirping in the extracted mid-spectral region. Both of these methods shortened the optical pulse duration to approximately 7 ps. These optical pulses were amplified to over 20-kW peak power for two-photon microscopy. We obtained clear two-photon images of neurons in a fixed brain slice of H-line mouse expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. Furthermore, a successful experiment was also confirmed for in vivo deep region H-line mouse brain neuron imaging.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, “Application of a femtosecond self-sustained mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser to the field of laser scanning confocal microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(8), 851–859 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Yokoyama, H.-C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3467–3471 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Yokoyama, A. Sato, H.-C. Guo, K. Sato, M. Mure, H. Tsubokawa, “Nonlinear-microscopy optical-pulse sources based on mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17752–17758 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Plaetzer, B. Krammer, J. Berlanda, F. Berr, T. Kiesslich, “Photophysics and photochemistry of photodynamic therapy: fundamental aspects,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(2), 259–268 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picoseconds pulse laser,” Sci. Reports 3, 1014 (2013).
  9. C. L. Lin, P. L. Liu, T. C. Damen, D. J. Eilenberger, R. L. Hartman, “Simple picosecond pulse generation scheme for injection lasers,” Electron. Lett. 16(15), 600–601 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Yokoyama, “Dynamics in gain-switched semiconductor lasers generating ultrashort optical pulses,” presented at OPTIC 2012, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, 6–8 Dec. (2012).
  11. S. Q. Chen, A. Sato, T. Ito, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Sub-5-ps optical pulse generation from a 1.55-µm distributed-feedback laser diode with nanosecond electric pulse excitation and spectral filtering,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24843–24849 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, A. Sato, T. Ito, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Dynamics of short-pulse generation via spectral filtering from intensely excited gain-switched 1.55-μm distributed-feedback laser diodes,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10597–10605 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picoseconds pulse laser,” Sci. Reports 3, 1014 (2013).

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, A. Sato, T. Ito, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Dynamics of short-pulse generation via spectral filtering from intensely excited gain-switched 1.55-μm distributed-feedback laser diodes,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10597–10605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2009 (1)

K. Plaetzer, B. Krammer, J. Berlanda, F. Berr, T. Kiesslich, “Photophysics and photochemistry of photodynamic therapy: fundamental aspects,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(2), 259–268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, “Application of a femtosecond self-sustained mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser to the field of laser scanning confocal microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(8), 851–859 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

C. L. Lin, P. L. Liu, T. C. Damen, D. J. Eilenberger, R. L. Hartman, “Simple picosecond pulse generation scheme for injection lasers,” Electron. Lett. 16(15), 600–601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Acker, H.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiyama, H.

Amos, W. B.

P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, “Application of a femtosecond self-sustained mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser to the field of laser scanning confocal microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(8), 851–859 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berlanda, J.

K. Plaetzer, B. Krammer, J. Berlanda, F. Berr, T. Kiesslich, “Photophysics and photochemistry of photodynamic therapy: fundamental aspects,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(2), 259–268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berr, F.

K. Plaetzer, B. Krammer, J. Berlanda, F. Berr, T. Kiesslich, “Photophysics and photochemistry of photodynamic therapy: fundamental aspects,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(2), 259–268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bestvater, F.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. Q.

Curley, P. F.

P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, “Application of a femtosecond self-sustained mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser to the field of laser scanning confocal microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(8), 851–859 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

C. L. Lin, P. L. Liu, T. C. Damen, D. J. Eilenberger, R. L. Hartman, “Simple picosecond pulse generation scheme for injection lasers,” Electron. Lett. 16(15), 600–601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eilenberger, D. J.

C. L. Lin, P. L. Liu, T. C. Damen, D. J. Eilenberger, R. L. Hartman, “Simple picosecond pulse generation scheme for injection lasers,” Electron. Lett. 16(15), 600–601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, “Application of a femtosecond self-sustained mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser to the field of laser scanning confocal microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(8), 851–859 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feurer, T.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, H.-C.

Hacker, M.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartman, R. L.

C. L. Lin, P. L. Liu, T. C. Damen, D. J. Eilenberger, R. L. Hartman, “Simple picosecond pulse generation scheme for injection lasers,” Electron. Lett. 16(15), 600–601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Heckel-Pompey, A.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibi, T.

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picoseconds pulse laser,” Sci. Reports 3, 1014 (2013).

Ito, H.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H.-C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3467–3471 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, T.

Kashiwagi, K.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawakami, R.

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picoseconds pulse laser,” Sci. Reports 3, 1014 (2013).

Kiesslich, T.

K. Plaetzer, B. Krammer, J. Berlanda, F. Berr, T. Kiesslich, “Photophysics and photochemistry of photodynamic therapy: fundamental aspects,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(2), 259–268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozawa, Y.

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picoseconds pulse laser,” Sci. Reports 3, 1014 (2013).

Krammer, B.

K. Plaetzer, B. Krammer, J. Berlanda, F. Berr, T. Kiesslich, “Photophysics and photochemistry of photodynamic therapy: fundamental aspects,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(2), 259–268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. L.

C. L. Lin, P. L. Liu, T. C. Damen, D. J. Eilenberger, R. L. Hartman, “Simple picosecond pulse generation scheme for injection lasers,” Electron. Lett. 16(15), 600–601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P. L.

C. L. Lin, P. L. Liu, T. C. Damen, D. J. Eilenberger, R. L. Hartman, “Simple picosecond pulse generation scheme for injection lasers,” Electron. Lett. 16(15), 600–601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mure, M.

Nemoto, T.

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picoseconds pulse laser,” Sci. Reports 3, 1014 (2013).

Plaetzer, K.

K. Plaetzer, B. Krammer, J. Berlanda, F. Berr, T. Kiesslich, “Photophysics and photochemistry of photodynamic therapy: fundamental aspects,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(2), 259–268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porwol, T.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, N.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, A.

Sato, K.

Sato, S.

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picoseconds pulse laser,” Sci. Reports 3, 1014 (2013).

Sawada, K.

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picoseconds pulse laser,” Sci. Reports 3, 1014 (2013).

Shikata, J.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spiess, E.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stobrawa, G.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takashima, K.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H.-C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3467–3471 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, H.

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H.-C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3467–3471 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toth, K.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsubokawa, H.

H. Yokoyama, A. Sato, H.-C. Guo, K. Sato, M. Mure, H. Tsubokawa, “Nonlinear-microscopy optical-pulse sources based on mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17752–17758 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. G.

P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, “Application of a femtosecond self-sustained mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser to the field of laser scanning confocal microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(8), 851–859 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wotzlaw, C.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoda, T.

Yokoyama, H.

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picoseconds pulse laser,” Sci. Reports 3, 1014 (2013).

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, A. Sato, T. Ito, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Dynamics of short-pulse generation via spectral filtering from intensely excited gain-switched 1.55-μm distributed-feedback laser diodes,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10597–10605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, A. Sato, T. Ito, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Sub-5-ps optical pulse generation from a 1.55-µm distributed-feedback laser diode with nanosecond electric pulse excitation and spectral filtering,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24843–24849 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, A. Sato, H.-C. Guo, K. Sato, M. Mure, H. Tsubokawa, “Nonlinear-microscopy optical-pulse sources based on mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17752–17758 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yokoyama, H.-C. Guo, T. Yoda, K. Takashima, K. Sato, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging with picosecond optical pulses from a semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3467–3471 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshita, M.

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. L. Lin, P. L. Liu, T. C. Damen, D. J. Eilenberger, R. L. Hartman, “Simple picosecond pulse generation scheme for injection lasers,” Electron. Lett. 16(15), 600–601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

H. Yokoyama, H. Tsubokawa, H.-C. Guo, J. Shikata, K. Sato, K. Takashima, K. Kashiwagi, N. Saito, H. Taniguchi, H. Ito, “Two-photon bioimaging utilizing supercontinuum light generated by a high-peak-power picosecond semiconductor laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

K. Plaetzer, B. Krammer, J. Berlanda, F. Berr, T. Kiesslich, “Photophysics and photochemistry of photodynamic therapy: fundamental aspects,” Lasers Med. Sci. 24(2), 259–268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, “Application of a femtosecond self-sustained mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser to the field of laser scanning confocal microscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(8), 851–859 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Reports (1)

R. Kawakami, K. Sawada, A. Sato, T. Hibi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, H. Yokoyama, T. Nemoto, “Visualizing hippocampal neurons with in vivo two-photon microscopy using a 1030 nm picoseconds pulse laser,” Sci. Reports 3, 1014 (2013).

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Yokoyama, “Dynamics in gain-switched semiconductor lasers generating ultrashort optical pulses,” presented at OPTIC 2012, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, 6–8 Dec. (2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for strong gain switching (GS) of the 1064-nm distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) and subsequent spectral handling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical spectra for the outputs from the gain-switched LD (GSLD) (blue solid line), and transmission curves of the tunable bandpass filter (BPF) (red dotted line) when the LD temperature is tuned to 20, 25, and 30°C. (b) Optical spectra and (c) SHG intensity autocorrelation traces for the optical pulses of short-wavelength edge components, extracted using the BPF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SHG intensity autocorrelation traces and (b) central pass wavelength dependence of the optical pulse width for spectral filtering at various wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optical spectra and (b) SHG intensity autocorrelation traces for the optical pulses reflected from the narrow-band chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two-photon fluorescence imaging of the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP)-expressing neurons in the PFA-fixed brain slices of the H-line mouse.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo deep two-photon fluorescence imaging of the eYFP-expressing neurons in the brain of the H-line mouse.

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