Abstract

We report high sensitivity detection and tracking of a single fluorescent nanoparticle in solution by use of four alternately pulsed laser diodes for fluorescence excitation in a confocal microscope. Slight offsets between the centers of the overlapping laser foci together with time-resolved photon counting enable sub-micron precision position measurements. Real-time correction for diffusional motion with a xyz-piezo stage then enables tracking of a nanoparticle with diffusivity up to ~12 μm2 s−1. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and calibration measurements indicate a net fluorescence photon detection efficiency of ~6–9%, comparable to that of an optimized single-molecule microscope.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. E. Moerner, “New directions in single-molecule imaging and analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(31), 12596–12602 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Cang, C. S. Xu, H. Yang, “Progress in single-molecule tracking spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(4-6), 285–291 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Dupont, D. C. Lamb, “Nanoscale three-dimensional single particle tracking,” Nanoscale 3(11), 4532–4541 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Baba, K. Nishida, “Single-molecule tracking in living cells using single quantum dot applications,” Theranostics 2(7), 655–667 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).
  6. S. Ram, D. Kim, R. J. Ober, E. S. Ward, “3D single molecule tracking with multifocal plane microscopy reveals rapid intercellular transferrin transport at epithelial cell barriers,” Biophys. J. 103(7), 1594–1603 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. K. King, B. K. Canfield, L. M. Davis, “Three-dimensional anti-Brownian electrokinetic trapping of a single nanoparticle in solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(043102), 1–5 (2013), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Badieirostami, M. D. Lew, M. A. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional localization precision of the double-helix point spread function versus astigmatism and biplane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161103 (2010), doi:.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. F. Juette, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional tracking of single fluorescent particles with submillisecond temporal resolution,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4657–4663 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. J. Berglund, K. McHale, H. Mabuchi, “Feedback localization of freely diffusing fluorescent particles near the optical shot-noise limit,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 145–147 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Hellriegel, E. Gratton, “Real-time multi-parameter spectroscopy and localization in three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6(Suppl 1), S3–S14 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Werner, “Three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(224106), 1–3 (2007), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, J. H. Werner, “Confocal, three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in high-background environments,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9830–9834 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Cang, C. S. Xu, D. Montiel, H. Yang, “Guiding a confocal microscope by single fluorescent nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2729–2731 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. McHale, A. J. Berglund, H. Mabuchi, “Quantum dot photon statistics measured by three-dimensional particle tracking,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3535–3539 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. V. Levi, Q. Ruan, K. Kis-Petikova, E. Gratton, “Scanning FCS, a novel method for three-dimensional particle tracking,” Biochem. Soc. Trans. 31(5), 997–1000 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. Levi, Q. Q. Ruan, E. Gratton, “3-D particle tracking in a two-photon microscope: Application to the study of molecular dynamics in cells,” Biophys. J. 88(4), 2919–2928 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Katayama, O. Burkacky, M. Meyer, C. Bräuchle, E. Gratton, D. C. Lamb, “Real-time nanomicroscopy via three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” ChemPhysChem 10(14), 2458–2464 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. F. Juette, F. E. Rivera-Molina, D. K. Toomre, J. Bewersdorf, “Adaptive optics enables three-dimensional single particle tracking at the sub-millisecond scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(173702), 1–4 (2013), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. F. Reuel, A. Dupont, O. Thouvenin, D. C. Lamb, M. S. Strano, “Three-dimensional tracking of carbon nanotubes within living cells,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5420–5428 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).
  24. W. E. Moerner, D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Bechhoefer, “Feedback for physicists: A tutorial essay on control,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(3), 783–836 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. A. Ball, G. Q. Shen, L. M. Davis, “Single-molecule detection with axial flow into a micrometer-sized capillary,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1157–1164 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. M. Davis, G. Q. Shen, “Accounting for triplet and saturation effects in FCS measurements,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 7(4), 287–301 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. http://microscope.olympus-global.com/uis2/en/uplsapo60xw/
  29. N. S. Cheng, “Formula for the viscosity of a glycerol-water mixture,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47(9), 3285–3288 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013

J. K. King, B. K. Canfield, L. M. Davis, “Three-dimensional anti-Brownian electrokinetic trapping of a single nanoparticle in solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(043102), 1–5 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).

M. F. Juette, F. E. Rivera-Molina, D. K. Toomre, J. Bewersdorf, “Adaptive optics enables three-dimensional single particle tracking at the sub-millisecond scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(173702), 1–4 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2012

N. F. Reuel, A. Dupont, O. Thouvenin, D. C. Lamb, M. S. Strano, “Three-dimensional tracking of carbon nanotubes within living cells,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5420–5428 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ram, D. Kim, R. J. Ober, E. S. Ward, “3D single molecule tracking with multifocal plane microscopy reveals rapid intercellular transferrin transport at epithelial cell barriers,” Biophys. J. 103(7), 1594–1603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Baba, K. Nishida, “Single-molecule tracking in living cells using single quantum dot applications,” Theranostics 2(7), 655–667 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

A. Dupont, D. C. Lamb, “Nanoscale three-dimensional single particle tracking,” Nanoscale 3(11), 4532–4541 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Badieirostami, M. D. Lew, M. A. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional localization precision of the double-helix point spread function versus astigmatism and biplane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161103 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Juette, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional tracking of single fluorescent particles with submillisecond temporal resolution,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4657–4663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. Hellriegel, E. Gratton, “Real-time multi-parameter spectroscopy and localization in three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6(Suppl 1), S3–S14 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Katayama, O. Burkacky, M. Meyer, C. Bräuchle, E. Gratton, D. C. Lamb, “Real-time nanomicroscopy via three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” ChemPhysChem 10(14), 2458–2464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Cang, C. S. Xu, H. Yang, “Progress in single-molecule tracking spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(4-6), 285–291 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, J. H. Werner, “Confocal, three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in high-background environments,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9830–9834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Cheng, “Formula for the viscosity of a glycerol-water mixture,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47(9), 3285–3288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. J. Berglund, K. McHale, H. Mabuchi, “Feedback localization of freely diffusing fluorescent particles near the optical shot-noise limit,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 145–147 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Ball, G. Q. Shen, L. M. Davis, “Single-molecule detection with axial flow into a micrometer-sized capillary,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1157–1164 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cang, C. S. Xu, D. Montiel, H. Yang, “Guiding a confocal microscope by single fluorescent nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2729–2731 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Werner, “Three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(224106), 1–3 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, “New directions in single-molecule imaging and analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(31), 12596–12602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. McHale, A. J. Berglund, H. Mabuchi, “Quantum dot photon statistics measured by three-dimensional particle tracking,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3535–3539 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. M. Davis, G. Q. Shen, “Accounting for triplet and saturation effects in FCS measurements,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 7(4), 287–301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Bechhoefer, “Feedback for physicists: A tutorial essay on control,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(3), 783–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Levi, Q. Q. Ruan, E. Gratton, “3-D particle tracking in a two-photon microscope: Application to the study of molecular dynamics in cells,” Biophys. J. 88(4), 2919–2928 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

W. E. Moerner, D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Levi, Q. Ruan, K. Kis-Petikova, E. Gratton, “Scanning FCS, a novel method for three-dimensional particle tracking,” Biochem. Soc. Trans. 31(5), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arcizet, D.

A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).

Baba, K.

K. Baba, K. Nishida, “Single-molecule tracking in living cells using single quantum dot applications,” Theranostics 2(7), 655–667 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badieirostami, M.

M. Badieirostami, M. D. Lew, M. A. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional localization precision of the double-helix point spread function versus astigmatism and biplane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161103 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ball, D. A.

Bechhoefer, J.

J. Bechhoefer, “Feedback for physicists: A tutorial essay on control,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(3), 783–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, A. J.

A. J. Berglund, K. McHale, H. Mabuchi, “Feedback localization of freely diffusing fluorescent particles near the optical shot-noise limit,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 145–147 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. McHale, A. J. Berglund, H. Mabuchi, “Quantum dot photon statistics measured by three-dimensional particle tracking,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3535–3539 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bewersdorf, J.

M. F. Juette, F. E. Rivera-Molina, D. K. Toomre, J. Bewersdorf, “Adaptive optics enables three-dimensional single particle tracking at the sub-millisecond scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(173702), 1–4 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. F. Juette, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional tracking of single fluorescent particles with submillisecond temporal resolution,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4657–4663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bomar, B. W.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bräuchle, C.

Y. Katayama, O. Burkacky, M. Meyer, C. Bräuchle, E. Gratton, D. C. Lamb, “Real-time nanomicroscopy via three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” ChemPhysChem 10(14), 2458–2464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkacky, O.

Y. Katayama, O. Burkacky, M. Meyer, C. Bräuchle, E. Gratton, D. C. Lamb, “Real-time nanomicroscopy via three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” ChemPhysChem 10(14), 2458–2464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canfield, B. K.

J. K. King, B. K. Canfield, L. M. Davis, “Three-dimensional anti-Brownian electrokinetic trapping of a single nanoparticle in solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(043102), 1–5 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cang, H.

H. Cang, C. S. Xu, H. Yang, “Progress in single-molecule tracking spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(4-6), 285–291 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Cang, C. S. Xu, D. Montiel, H. Yang, “Guiding a confocal microscope by single fluorescent nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2729–2731 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, N. S.

N. S. Cheng, “Formula for the viscosity of a glycerol-water mixture,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47(9), 3285–3288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, P. J.

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniel, C.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L. M.

J. K. King, B. K. Canfield, L. M. Davis, “Three-dimensional anti-Brownian electrokinetic trapping of a single nanoparticle in solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(043102), 1–5 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Ball, G. Q. Shen, L. M. Davis, “Single-molecule detection with axial flow into a micrometer-sized capillary,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1157–1164 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Davis, G. Q. Shen, “Accounting for triplet and saturation effects in FCS measurements,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 7(4), 287–301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dukes, A. D.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

Dupont, A.

A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).

N. F. Reuel, A. Dupont, O. Thouvenin, D. C. Lamb, M. S. Strano, “Three-dimensional tracking of carbon nanotubes within living cells,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5420–5428 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dupont, D. C. Lamb, “Nanoscale three-dimensional single particle tracking,” Nanoscale 3(11), 4532–4541 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

W. E. Moerner, D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Germann, J. A.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

Goodwin, P. M.

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Werner, “Three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(224106), 1–3 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Gorelashvili, M.

A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).

Gratton, E.

C. Hellriegel, E. Gratton, “Real-time multi-parameter spectroscopy and localization in three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6(Suppl 1), S3–S14 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Katayama, O. Burkacky, M. Meyer, C. Bräuchle, E. Gratton, D. C. Lamb, “Real-time nanomicroscopy via three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” ChemPhysChem 10(14), 2458–2464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Levi, Q. Q. Ruan, E. Gratton, “3-D particle tracking in a two-photon microscope: Application to the study of molecular dynamics in cells,” Biophys. J. 88(4), 2919–2928 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Levi, Q. Ruan, K. Kis-Petikova, E. Gratton, “Scanning FCS, a novel method for three-dimensional particle tracking,” Biochem. Soc. Trans. 31(5), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinrich, D.

A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).

Hellriegel, C.

C. Hellriegel, E. Gratton, “Real-time multi-parameter spectroscopy and localization in three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6(Suppl 1), S3–S14 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmeister, W. H.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Juette, M. F.

M. F. Juette, F. E. Rivera-Molina, D. K. Toomre, J. Bewersdorf, “Adaptive optics enables three-dimensional single particle tracking at the sub-millisecond scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(173702), 1–4 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. F. Juette, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional tracking of single fluorescent particles with submillisecond temporal resolution,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4657–4663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katayama, Y.

A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).

Y. Katayama, O. Burkacky, M. Meyer, C. Bräuchle, E. Gratton, D. C. Lamb, “Real-time nanomicroscopy via three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” ChemPhysChem 10(14), 2458–2464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

S. Ram, D. Kim, R. J. Ober, E. S. Ward, “3D single molecule tracking with multifocal plane microscopy reveals rapid intercellular transferrin transport at epithelial cell barriers,” Biophys. J. 103(7), 1594–1603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, J. K.

J. K. King, B. K. Canfield, L. M. Davis, “Three-dimensional anti-Brownian electrokinetic trapping of a single nanoparticle in solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(043102), 1–5 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

Kis-Petikova, K.

V. Levi, Q. Ruan, K. Kis-Petikova, E. Gratton, “Scanning FCS, a novel method for three-dimensional particle tracking,” Biochem. Soc. Trans. 31(5), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamb, D. C.

A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).

N. F. Reuel, A. Dupont, O. Thouvenin, D. C. Lamb, M. S. Strano, “Three-dimensional tracking of carbon nanotubes within living cells,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5420–5428 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dupont, D. C. Lamb, “Nanoscale three-dimensional single particle tracking,” Nanoscale 3(11), 4532–4541 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Katayama, O. Burkacky, M. Meyer, C. Bräuchle, E. Gratton, D. C. Lamb, “Real-time nanomicroscopy via three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” ChemPhysChem 10(14), 2458–2464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lescano-Mendoza, I. P.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lessard, G. A.

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, J. H. Werner, “Confocal, three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in high-background environments,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9830–9834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Werner, “Three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(224106), 1–3 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Levi, V.

V. Levi, Q. Q. Ruan, E. Gratton, “3-D particle tracking in a two-photon microscope: Application to the study of molecular dynamics in cells,” Biophys. J. 88(4), 2919–2928 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Levi, Q. Ruan, K. Kis-Petikova, E. Gratton, “Scanning FCS, a novel method for three-dimensional particle tracking,” Biochem. Soc. Trans. 31(5), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lew, M. D.

M. Badieirostami, M. D. Lew, M. A. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional localization precision of the double-helix point spread function versus astigmatism and biplane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161103 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lidke, D. S.

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mabuchi, H.

K. McHale, A. J. Berglund, H. Mabuchi, “Quantum dot photon statistics measured by three-dimensional particle tracking,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3535–3539 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Berglund, K. McHale, H. Mabuchi, “Feedback localization of freely diffusing fluorescent particles near the optical shot-noise limit,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 145–147 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markov, D. A.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McHale, K.

K. McHale, A. J. Berglund, H. Mabuchi, “Quantum dot photon statistics measured by three-dimensional particle tracking,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3535–3539 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Berglund, K. McHale, H. Mabuchi, “Feedback localization of freely diffusing fluorescent particles near the optical shot-noise limit,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 145–147 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, M.

Y. Katayama, O. Burkacky, M. Meyer, C. Bräuchle, E. Gratton, D. C. Lamb, “Real-time nanomicroscopy via three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” ChemPhysChem 10(14), 2458–2464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

M. Badieirostami, M. D. Lew, M. A. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional localization precision of the double-helix point spread function versus astigmatism and biplane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161103 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, “New directions in single-molecule imaging and analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(31), 12596–12602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Montiel, D.

Nishida, K.

K. Baba, K. Nishida, “Single-molecule tracking in living cells using single quantum dot applications,” Theranostics 2(7), 655–667 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ober, R. J.

S. Ram, D. Kim, R. J. Ober, E. S. Ward, “3D single molecule tracking with multifocal plane microscopy reveals rapid intercellular transferrin transport at epithelial cell barriers,” Biophys. J. 103(7), 1594–1603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phipps, M. E.

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ram, S.

S. Ram, D. Kim, R. J. Ober, E. S. Ward, “3D single molecule tracking with multifocal plane microscopy reveals rapid intercellular transferrin transport at epithelial cell barriers,” Biophys. J. 103(7), 1594–1603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reuel, N. F.

N. F. Reuel, A. Dupont, O. Thouvenin, D. C. Lamb, M. S. Strano, “Three-dimensional tracking of carbon nanotubes within living cells,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5420–5428 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivera-Molina, F. E.

M. F. Juette, F. E. Rivera-Molina, D. K. Toomre, J. Bewersdorf, “Adaptive optics enables three-dimensional single particle tracking at the sub-millisecond scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(173702), 1–4 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W. N.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, S. J.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

Ruan, Q.

V. Levi, Q. Ruan, K. Kis-Petikova, E. Gratton, “Scanning FCS, a novel method for three-dimensional particle tracking,” Biochem. Soc. Trans. 31(5), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, Q. Q.

V. Levi, Q. Q. Ruan, E. Gratton, “3-D particle tracking in a two-photon microscope: Application to the study of molecular dynamics in cells,” Biophys. J. 88(4), 2919–2928 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samson, P. C.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, V.

A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).

Shen, G.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, G. Q.

D. A. Ball, G. Q. Shen, L. M. Davis, “Single-molecule detection with axial flow into a micrometer-sized capillary,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1157–1164 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Davis, G. Q. Shen, “Accounting for triplet and saturation effects in FCS measurements,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 7(4), 287–301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikorski, Z.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strano, M. S.

N. F. Reuel, A. Dupont, O. Thouvenin, D. C. Lamb, M. S. Strano, “Three-dimensional tracking of carbon nanotubes within living cells,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5420–5428 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. A.

M. Badieirostami, M. D. Lew, M. A. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional localization precision of the double-helix point spread function versus astigmatism and biplane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161103 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thouvenin, O.

N. F. Reuel, A. Dupont, O. Thouvenin, D. C. Lamb, M. S. Strano, “Three-dimensional tracking of carbon nanotubes within living cells,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5420–5428 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toomre, D. K.

M. F. Juette, F. E. Rivera-Molina, D. K. Toomre, J. Bewersdorf, “Adaptive optics enables three-dimensional single particle tracking at the sub-millisecond scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(173702), 1–4 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Ward, E. S.

S. Ram, D. Kim, R. J. Ober, E. S. Ward, “3D single molecule tracking with multifocal plane microscopy reveals rapid intercellular transferrin transport at epithelial cell barriers,” Biophys. J. 103(7), 1594–1603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehnekamp, F.

A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).

Wells, N. P.

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, J. H. Werner, “Confocal, three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in high-background environments,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9830–9834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. H.

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, J. H. Werner, “Confocal, three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in high-background environments,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9830–9834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Werner, “Three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(224106), 1–3 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Wikswo, J. P.

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. S.

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C. S.

H. Cang, C. S. Xu, H. Yang, “Progress in single-molecule tracking spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(4-6), 285–291 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Cang, C. S. Xu, D. Montiel, H. Yang, “Guiding a confocal microscope by single fluorescent nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2729–2731 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. Cang, C. S. Xu, H. Yang, “Progress in single-molecule tracking spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(4-6), 285–291 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Cang, C. S. Xu, D. Montiel, H. Yang, “Guiding a confocal microscope by single fluorescent nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2729–2731 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

N. F. Reuel, A. Dupont, O. Thouvenin, D. C. Lamb, M. S. Strano, “Three-dimensional tracking of carbon nanotubes within living cells,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5420–5428 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, J. H. Werner, “Confocal, three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots in high-background environments,” Anal. Chem. 80(24), 9830–9834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, J. H. Werner, “Three-dimensional tracking of individual quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(224106), 1–3 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. F. Juette, F. E. Rivera-Molina, D. K. Toomre, J. Bewersdorf, “Adaptive optics enables three-dimensional single particle tracking at the sub-millisecond scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(173702), 1–4 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. K. King, B. K. Canfield, L. M. Davis, “Three-dimensional anti-Brownian electrokinetic trapping of a single nanoparticle in solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(043102), 1–5 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Badieirostami, M. D. Lew, M. A. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional localization precision of the double-helix point spread function versus astigmatism and biplane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161103 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochem. Soc. Trans.

V. Levi, Q. Ruan, K. Kis-Petikova, E. Gratton, “Scanning FCS, a novel method for three-dimensional particle tracking,” Biochem. Soc. Trans. 31(5), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

V. Levi, Q. Q. Ruan, E. Gratton, “3-D particle tracking in a two-photon microscope: Application to the study of molecular dynamics in cells,” Biophys. J. 88(4), 2919–2928 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ram, D. Kim, R. J. Ober, E. S. Ward, “3D single molecule tracking with multifocal plane microscopy reveals rapid intercellular transferrin transport at epithelial cell barriers,” Biophys. J. 103(7), 1594–1603 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

H. Cang, C. S. Xu, H. Yang, “Progress in single-molecule tracking spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(4-6), 285–291 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem

Y. Katayama, O. Burkacky, M. Meyer, C. Bräuchle, E. Gratton, D. C. Lamb, “Real-time nanomicroscopy via three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” ChemPhysChem 10(14), 2458–2464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol.

L. M. Davis, G. Q. Shen, “Accounting for triplet and saturation effects in FCS measurements,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 7(4), 287–301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.

N. S. Cheng, “Formula for the viscosity of a glycerol-water mixture,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47(9), 3285–3288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Soc. Interface

C. Hellriegel, E. Gratton, “Real-time multi-parameter spectroscopy and localization in three-dimensional single-particle tracking,” J. R. Soc. Interface 6(Suppl 1), S3–S14 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

N. P. Wells, G. A. Lessard, P. M. Goodwin, M. E. Phipps, P. J. Cutler, D. S. Lidke, B. S. Wilson, J. H. Werner, “Time-resolved three-dimensional molecular tracking in live cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4732–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Juette, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional tracking of single fluorescent particles with submillisecond temporal resolution,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4657–4663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. McHale, A. J. Berglund, H. Mabuchi, “Quantum dot photon statistics measured by three-dimensional particle tracking,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3535–3539 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale

A. Dupont, D. C. Lamb, “Nanoscale three-dimensional single particle tracking,” Nanoscale 3(11), 4532–4541 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

A. Dupont, M. Gorelashvili, V. Schuller, F. Wehnekamp, D. Arcizet, Y. Katayama, D. C. Lamb, D. Heinrich, “Three-dimensional single-particle tracking in live cells: News from the third dimension,” New J. Phys. 15(075008), 1–17 (2013).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

W. E. Moerner, “New directions in single-molecule imaging and analysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(31), 12596–12602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, J. A. Germann, J. K. King, W. N. Robinson, A. D. Dukes, S. J. Rosenthal, P. C. Samson, J. P. Wikswo, “Four-focus single-particle position determination in a confocal microscope,” Proc. SPIE 7571(757112), 1–10 (2010).

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, G. Shen, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, W. N. Robinson, “Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels,” Proc. SPIE 7035(70350A), 1–12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

J. Bechhoefer, “Feedback for physicists: A tutorial essay on control,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(3), 783–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

W. E. Moerner, D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Theranostics

K. Baba, K. Nishida, “Single-molecule tracking in living cells using single quantum dot applications,” Theranostics 2(7), 655–667 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

http://microscope.olympus-global.com/uis2/en/uplsapo60xw/

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the beam combining optics. Each of the four laser diode beams passes through a single-mode fiber (SMF) with fiber coupler (FC) screwed to a collimator (Col) separated by distance F1 or F2, with ~500 µm additional spacing for F2 provided by five washers between couplers and collimators, as shown in the inset. The four beams are overlapped using 3 beamsplitters (BS) and mirrors (M) and pass through a linear polarizer (Pol) to the microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of four-focus microscope. Components are: L1: 100 mm lens, L2: 300 mm lens, BS: beam sampler, BD: beam dump, O: objective, S: sample, PS: piezoelectric stage, F: filter, M: mirrors, L3: 250 mm lens, P: pinhole, L4: 150 mm lens, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, SPAD, single-photon avalanche diode. The system uses a National Instruments LabVIEW RealTime (RT) Desktop with PCI 6602 card to control the modulation of the laser diodes and count TTL pulses from the SPADs and PCI DIO-96 card to communicate with the piezoelectric stage. Data is streamed from the RT desktop to another computer (Host PC).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental autocorrelation function of Alexa 647-streptavidin in water collected using the four-focus confocal microscope and curve fit to the standard model with inclusion of an exponential decay factor to account for triplet crossing. (Small peaks near the tail are artifacts arising from the laser diode modulation.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Number of instances of nanoparticle tracking versus time tracked in solutions of a) 100% glycerol, b) 72% glycerol, c) 63% glycerol, d) 50% glycerol, e) 37% glycerol, and f) 0% glycerol. The solid line is the theoretical maximum diffusional escape time and the dotted line is the experimentally measured mean time over which a nanoparticle is tracked.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A single instance of nanoparticle tracking in 50% glycerol by mass. The trajectory (from blue to red) is displayed in a) and photon counts per 1.86 ms cycle are shown in b).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Displacement from the center of the confocal volume to the center of each focusa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Solutions of 40 nm fluorescent beads used in experimentsa

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( x , y , z ) = i = 0 3 N i ( Δ x , Δ y , Δ z ) i / i = 0 3 N i .
( δ x , δ y , δ z ) = ( K x x , K y y , K z z ) .
g ( 0 ) = 1 + ( γ / N ) ,
R i = 3 × 2 P i π ω 0 2 × σ Φ f E γ ,
R f = exp ( 2 Δ x 2 / ω 0 2 ( 1 + ( λ Δ z / π ω 0 2 ) 2 ) ) / ( 1 + ( λ Δ z / π ω 0 2 ) 2 ) × R i 0.38 × R i .

Metrics