Abstract

A multispectral imaging technique with a new CMOS camera is proposed. With a four channel Bayer patterns, the camera can acquire four spectral images simultaneously. We have developed a color correction process to obtain accurate color information, and we have also demonstrated its applications on portrait enhancement, shadow removal, and vein enhancement.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. R. Harvey, J. E. Beale, A. H. Greenaway, T. J. Hanlon, J. W. Williams, “Technology options for hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 13–24 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. L. Thompson, “Remote sensing using solid-state array technology,” Photogramm. Eng. 45, 47–55 (1979).
  3. J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41(10), 2532–2548 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. R. Harvey, D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, “Birefringent Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5368–5374 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Zimmermann, J. Rietdorf, R. Pepperkok, “Spectral imaging and its applications in live cell microscopy,” FEBS Lett. 546(1), 87–92 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. R. Chen, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, “Machine vision technology for agricultural applications,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 36(2–3), 173–191 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. L. Farkas, D. Becker, “Applications of spectral imaging: detection and analysis of human melanoma and its precursors,” Pigment Cell Res. 14(1), 2–8 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Weitzel, A. Krabbe, H. Kroker, N. Thatte, L. E. Tacconi-Garman, M. Cameron, R. Genzel, “3D: The next generation near-infrared imaging spectrometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 119(3), 531–546 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, A. R. Harvey, “Spectral imaging with a hyperspectral fovea,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(6), S298–S302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Wagadarikar, N. P. Pitsianis, X. Sun, D. J. Brady, “Video rate spectral imaging using a coded aperture snapshot spectral imager,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6368–6388 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Gorman, D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, A. R. Harvey, “Generalization of the Lyot filter and its application to snapshot spectral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5602–5608 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. W. Kudenov, E. L. Dereniak, “Compact real-time birefringent imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17973–17986 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. Gao, R. T. Kester, T. S. Tkaczyk, “Compact Image Slicing Spectrometer (ISS) for hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12293–12308 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Kong, S. Sprigle, D. Yi, F. Wang, C. Wang, F. Liu, “Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin,” Proc. SPIE 7557, 75570G (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. http://www.jai.com/en/products/lq-200cl
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    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Lu, C. Fredembach, M. Vetterli, and S. Susstrunk, “Designing color filter arrays for the joint capture of visible and near-infrared images,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Cairo, 2009), pp. 3797–3800.
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Huo, Y. Chang, J. Wang, X. Wei, “Robust Automatic White Balance Algorithm using Gray Color Points in Images,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 52(2), 541–546 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Chiang, “Gray World Assumption,” (1999). http://scien.stanford.edu/pages/labsite/1999/psych221/projects/99/jchiang/intro2.html .
  21. B. Lindbloom, “Chromatic Adaptation,” (2009). http://www.brucelindbloom.com/?Eqn_ChromAdapt.html .
  22. R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Saltzman's Principles of Color Technology (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).
  23. V. Cheung, S. Westland, D. Connah, C. Ripamonti, “A comparative study of the characterisation of colour cameras by means of neural networks and polynomial transforms,” Coloration Technology. 120(1), 19–25 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Lindbloom, “RGB/XYZ Matrices,” (2012). http://www.brucelindbloom.com/index.html?Eqn_RGB_to_XYZ.html .
  25. C. Fredembach, N. Barbusica, and S. Susstrunk, “Combining visible and near-infrared images for realistic skin smoothing,” In Proc. IS&T/SID 17th Color Imaging Conference, 2009.
  26. V. C. Paquit, K. W. Tobin, J. R. Price, F. Mèriaudeau, “3D and multispectral imaging for subcutaneous veins detection,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11360–11365 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. Wang, G. Leedham, D. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recognit. 41(3), 920–929 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

J. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Kong, F. Chen, “An Evaluation Method of a Micro-arrayed Multispectral Filter Mosaic,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (2)

A. Gorman, D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, A. R. Harvey, “Generalization of the Lyot filter and its application to snapshot spectral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5602–5608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kong, S. Sprigle, D. Yi, F. Wang, C. Wang, F. Liu, “Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin,” Proc. SPIE 7557, 75570G (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

L. Wang, G. Leedham, D. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recognit. 41(3), 920–929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Huo, Y. Chang, J. Wang, X. Wei, “Robust Automatic White Balance Algorithm using Gray Color Points in Images,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 52(2), 541–546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, A. R. Harvey, “Spectral imaging with a hyperspectral fovea,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(6), S298–S302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. R. Harvey, D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, “Birefringent Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5368–5374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Cheung, S. Westland, D. Connah, C. Ripamonti, “A comparative study of the characterisation of colour cameras by means of neural networks and polynomial transforms,” Coloration Technology. 120(1), 19–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Zimmermann, J. Rietdorf, R. Pepperkok, “Spectral imaging and its applications in live cell microscopy,” FEBS Lett. 546(1), 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41(10), 2532–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Chen, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, “Machine vision technology for agricultural applications,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 36(2–3), 173–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. L. Farkas, D. Becker, “Applications of spectral imaging: detection and analysis of human melanoma and its precursors,” Pigment Cell Res. 14(1), 2–8 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. R. Harvey, J. E. Beale, A. H. Greenaway, T. J. Hanlon, J. W. Williams, “Technology options for hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 13–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. Weitzel, A. Krabbe, H. Kroker, N. Thatte, L. E. Tacconi-Garman, M. Cameron, R. Genzel, “3D: The next generation near-infrared imaging spectrometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 119(3), 531–546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

L. L. Thompson, “Remote sensing using solid-state array technology,” Photogramm. Eng. 45, 47–55 (1979).

Beale, J. E.

A. R. Harvey, J. E. Beale, A. H. Greenaway, T. J. Hanlon, J. W. Williams, “Technology options for hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 13–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Becker, D.

D. L. Farkas, D. Becker, “Applications of spectral imaging: detection and analysis of human melanoma and its precursors,” Pigment Cell Res. 14(1), 2–8 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bezy, J. L.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D. J.

Brettel, H.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41(10), 2532–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bruzzi, S.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, M.

L. Weitzel, A. Krabbe, H. Kroker, N. Thatte, L. E. Tacconi-Garman, M. Cameron, R. Genzel, “3D: The next generation near-infrared imaging spectrometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 119(3), 531–546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

J. Huo, Y. Chang, J. Wang, X. Wei, “Robust Automatic White Balance Algorithm using Gray Color Points in Images,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 52(2), 541–546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chao, K.

Y. R. Chen, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, “Machine vision technology for agricultural applications,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 36(2–3), 173–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

J. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Kong, F. Chen, “An Evaluation Method of a Micro-arrayed Multispectral Filter Mosaic,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Kong, F. Chen, “An Evaluation Method of a Micro-arrayed Multispectral Filter Mosaic,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. R.

Y. R. Chen, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, “Machine vision technology for agricultural applications,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 36(2–3), 173–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, V.

V. Cheung, S. Westland, D. Connah, C. Ripamonti, “A comparative study of the characterisation of colour cameras by means of neural networks and polynomial transforms,” Coloration Technology. 120(1), 19–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D.

L. Wang, G. Leedham, D. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recognit. 41(3), 920–929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Connah, D.

V. Cheung, S. Westland, D. Connah, C. Ripamonti, “A comparative study of the characterisation of colour cameras by means of neural networks and polynomial transforms,” Coloration Technology. 120(1), 19–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dereniak, E. L.

Farkas, D. L.

D. L. Farkas, D. Becker, “Applications of spectral imaging: detection and analysis of human melanoma and its precursors,” Pigment Cell Res. 14(1), 2–8 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher-Holmes, D. W.

Gao, L.

Genzel, R.

L. Weitzel, A. Krabbe, H. Kroker, N. Thatte, L. E. Tacconi-Garman, M. Cameron, R. Genzel, “3D: The next generation near-infrared imaging spectrometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 119(3), 531–546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gorman, A.

Greenaway, A. H.

A. R. Harvey, J. E. Beale, A. H. Greenaway, T. J. Hanlon, J. W. Williams, “Technology options for hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 13–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanlon, T. J.

A. R. Harvey, J. E. Beale, A. H. Greenaway, T. J. Hanlon, J. W. Williams, “Technology options for hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 13–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hardeberg, J. Y.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41(10), 2532–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, A. R.

A. Gorman, D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, A. R. Harvey, “Generalization of the Lyot filter and its application to snapshot spectral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5602–5608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, A. R. Harvey, “Spectral imaging with a hyperspectral fovea,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(6), S298–S302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Harvey, D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, “Birefringent Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5368–5374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Harvey, J. E. Beale, A. H. Greenaway, T. J. Hanlon, J. W. Williams, “Technology options for hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 13–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huo, J.

J. Huo, Y. Chang, J. Wang, X. Wei, “Robust Automatic White Balance Algorithm using Gray Color Points in Images,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 52(2), 541–546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kester, R. T.

Kim, M. S.

Y. R. Chen, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, “Machine vision technology for agricultural applications,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 36(2–3), 173–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kong, L.

J. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Kong, F. Chen, “An Evaluation Method of a Micro-arrayed Multispectral Filter Mosaic,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Kong, S. Sprigle, D. Yi, F. Wang, C. Wang, F. Liu, “Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin,” Proc. SPIE 7557, 75570G (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krabbe, A.

L. Weitzel, A. Krabbe, H. Kroker, N. Thatte, L. E. Tacconi-Garman, M. Cameron, R. Genzel, “3D: The next generation near-infrared imaging spectrometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 119(3), 531–546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kroker, H.

L. Weitzel, A. Krabbe, H. Kroker, N. Thatte, L. E. Tacconi-Garman, M. Cameron, R. Genzel, “3D: The next generation near-infrared imaging spectrometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 119(3), 531–546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kudenov, M. W.

Leedham, G.

L. Wang, G. Leedham, D. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recognit. 41(3), 920–929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

J. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Kong, F. Chen, “An Evaluation Method of a Micro-arrayed Multispectral Filter Mosaic,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

L. Kong, S. Sprigle, D. Yi, F. Wang, C. Wang, F. Liu, “Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin,” Proc. SPIE 7557, 75570G (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mèriaudeau, F.

Paquit, V. C.

Pepperkok, R.

T. Zimmermann, J. Rietdorf, R. Pepperkok, “Spectral imaging and its applications in live cell microscopy,” FEBS Lett. 546(1), 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitsianis, N. P.

Price, J. R.

Rast, M.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rietdorf, J.

T. Zimmermann, J. Rietdorf, R. Pepperkok, “Spectral imaging and its applications in live cell microscopy,” FEBS Lett. 546(1), 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripamonti, C.

V. Cheung, S. Westland, D. Connah, C. Ripamonti, “A comparative study of the characterisation of colour cameras by means of neural networks and polynomial transforms,” Coloration Technology. 120(1), 19–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, F.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41(10), 2532–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sprigle, S.

L. Kong, S. Sprigle, D. Yi, F. Wang, C. Wang, F. Liu, “Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin,” Proc. SPIE 7557, 75570G (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Tacconi-Garman, L. E.

L. Weitzel, A. Krabbe, H. Kroker, N. Thatte, L. E. Tacconi-Garman, M. Cameron, R. Genzel, “3D: The next generation near-infrared imaging spectrometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 119(3), 531–546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thatte, N.

L. Weitzel, A. Krabbe, H. Kroker, N. Thatte, L. E. Tacconi-Garman, M. Cameron, R. Genzel, “3D: The next generation near-infrared imaging spectrometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 119(3), 531–546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. L.

L. L. Thompson, “Remote sensing using solid-state array technology,” Photogramm. Eng. 45, 47–55 (1979).

Tkaczyk, T. S.

Tobin, K. W.

Wagadarikar, A. A.

Wang, C.

L. Kong, S. Sprigle, D. Yi, F. Wang, C. Wang, F. Liu, “Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin,” Proc. SPIE 7557, 75570G (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

L. Kong, S. Sprigle, D. Yi, F. Wang, C. Wang, F. Liu, “Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin,” Proc. SPIE 7557, 75570G (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Huo, Y. Chang, J. Wang, X. Wei, “Robust Automatic White Balance Algorithm using Gray Color Points in Images,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 52(2), 541–546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, G. Leedham, D. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recognit. 41(3), 920–929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

J. Huo, Y. Chang, J. Wang, X. Wei, “Robust Automatic White Balance Algorithm using Gray Color Points in Images,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 52(2), 541–546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weitzel, L.

L. Weitzel, A. Krabbe, H. Kroker, N. Thatte, L. E. Tacconi-Garman, M. Cameron, R. Genzel, “3D: The next generation near-infrared imaging spectrometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 119(3), 531–546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Westland, S.

V. Cheung, S. Westland, D. Connah, C. Ripamonti, “A comparative study of the characterisation of colour cameras by means of neural networks and polynomial transforms,” Coloration Technology. 120(1), 19–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. W.

A. R. Harvey, J. E. Beale, A. H. Greenaway, T. J. Hanlon, J. W. Williams, “Technology options for hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 13–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yi, D.

L. Kong, S. Sprigle, D. Yi, F. Wang, C. Wang, F. Liu, “Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin,” Proc. SPIE 7557, 75570G (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

J. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Kong, F. Chen, “An Evaluation Method of a Micro-arrayed Multispectral Filter Mosaic,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Kong, F. Chen, “An Evaluation Method of a Micro-arrayed Multispectral Filter Mosaic,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, T.

T. Zimmermann, J. Rietdorf, R. Pepperkok, “Spectral imaging and its applications in live cell microscopy,” FEBS Lett. 546(1), 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

L. Weitzel, A. Krabbe, H. Kroker, N. Thatte, L. E. Tacconi-Garman, M. Cameron, R. Genzel, “3D: The next generation near-infrared imaging spectrometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 119(3), 531–546 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coloration Technology. (1)

V. Cheung, S. Westland, D. Connah, C. Ripamonti, “A comparative study of the characterisation of colour cameras by means of neural networks and polynomial transforms,” Coloration Technology. 120(1), 19–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Electron. Agric. (1)

Y. R. Chen, K. Chao, M. S. Kim, “Machine vision technology for agricultural applications,” Comput. Electron. Agric. 36(2–3), 173–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

FEBS Lett. (1)

T. Zimmermann, J. Rietdorf, R. Pepperkok, “Spectral imaging and its applications in live cell microscopy,” FEBS Lett. 546(1), 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

J. Huo, Y. Chang, J. Wang, X. Wei, “Robust Automatic White Balance Algorithm using Gray Color Points in Images,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 52(2), 541–546 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

D. W. Fletcher-Holmes, A. R. Harvey, “Spectral imaging with a hyperspectral fovea,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(6), S298–S302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41(10), 2532–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Pattern Recognit. (1)

L. Wang, G. Leedham, D. Cho, “Minutiae feature analysis for infrared hand vein pattern biometrics,” Pattern Recognit. 41(3), 920–929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Eng. (1)

L. L. Thompson, “Remote sensing using solid-state array technology,” Photogramm. Eng. 45, 47–55 (1979).

Pigment Cell Res. (1)

D. L. Farkas, D. Becker, “Applications of spectral imaging: detection and analysis of human melanoma and its precursors,” Pigment Cell Res. 14(1), 2–8 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

A. R. Harvey, J. E. Beale, A. H. Greenaway, T. J. Hanlon, J. W. Williams, “Technology options for hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 13–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Kong, S. Sprigle, D. Yi, F. Wang, C. Wang, F. Liu, “Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin,” Proc. SPIE 7557, 75570G (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zhang, Y. Chen, L. Kong, F. Chen, “An Evaluation Method of a Micro-arrayed Multispectral Filter Mosaic,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

Y. Lu, C. Fredembach, M. Vetterli, and S. Susstrunk, “Designing color filter arrays for the joint capture of visible and near-infrared images,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Cairo, 2009), pp. 3797–3800.
[CrossRef]

B. Lindbloom, “RGB/XYZ Matrices,” (2012). http://www.brucelindbloom.com/index.html?Eqn_RGB_to_XYZ.html .

C. Fredembach, N. Barbusica, and S. Susstrunk, “Combining visible and near-infrared images for realistic skin smoothing,” In Proc. IS&T/SID 17th Color Imaging Conference, 2009.

J. Chiang, “Gray World Assumption,” (1999). http://scien.stanford.edu/pages/labsite/1999/psych221/projects/99/jchiang/intro2.html .

B. Lindbloom, “Chromatic Adaptation,” (2009). http://www.brucelindbloom.com/?Eqn_ChromAdapt.html .

R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Saltzman's Principles of Color Technology (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).

http://www.jai.com/en/products/lq-200cl

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Color filter arrays with four bandpass filters and (b) Spectral sensitivity of the color filter arrays

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The experimental setup

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raw RGB image from RGB-NIR camera

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pipeline of color correction

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image after white balance correction

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Image after color correction, (b) Image after noise reduction, (c) Color error computation

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Portrait enhancement method using NIR image. (a) Raw RGB image, (b) RGB image after color correction, (c) Enhanced RGB image with NIR component.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of using NIR to remove the shadow. (a) White light image, (b) NIR and white light image.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Vein image using RGB-NIR camera. (a) RGB image, (b) NIR image, (c) RGB image, (d) Enhanced vein image

Equations (11)

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[ X D Y D Z D ] = M [ X S Y S Z S ] ,
M = M A 1 [ ρ D / ρ S 0 0 0 γ D / γ S 0 0 0 β D / β S ] M A ,
[ ρ S γ S β S ] = M A [ X W S Y W S Z W S ] ,
[ ρ D γ D β D ] = M A [ X W D Y W D Z W D ] ,
M s R G B 2 X Y Z = [ 0.412456 0.357576 0.180438 0.212673 0.715152 0.072175 0.019334 0.119192 0.950304 ] ,
M X Y Z 2 s R G B = [ 3.240454 1.537139 0.498531 0.969266 1.876011 0.0415560 0.055643 0.204026 1.057225 ] .
[ X ^ Y ^ Z ^ ] = [ β 11 β 12 β 13 β 21 β 22 β 23 β 31 β 32 β 33 ] [ R c a m e r a G c a m e r a B c a m e r a ] = C C M [ R c a m e r a G c a m e r a B c a m e r a ] .
V d e s t i n a t i o n = [ X ^ Y ^ Z ^ ] = [ β 11 β 12 ... β 118 β 119 β 21 β 22 ... β 218 β 219 β 31 β 32 ... β 318 β 319 ] [ R G B N I R R 2 G 2 B 2 R G R B G B R 3 G 3 B 3 R 2 G R 2 B G 2 R G 2 B B 2 R B 2 G ] = C C M 3 × 19 V c a m e r a ,
β 11 + β 12 + β 13 = X n β 21 + β 22 + β 23 = Y n β 31 + β 32 + β 33 = Z n β 14 + β 15 + ... + β 119 = 0.0 , β 24 + β 25 + ... + β 219 = 0.0 β 34 + β 35 + ... + β 319 = 0.0
C C M = V d e s t i n a t i o n / V c a m e r a .
V c a m e r a = [ V c a m e r a _ m e a n V c a m e r a _ m i n V c a m e r a _ m a x ] .

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