Abstract

We have developed a high-sensitivity, low-noise femtosecond imaging technique based on pump-probe time-resolved measurements with a standard CCD camera. The approach used in the experiment is based on lock-in acquisitions of images generated by a femtosecond laser probe synchronized to modulation of a femtosecond laser pump at the same rate. This technique allows time-resolved imaging of laser-excited phenomena with femtosecond time resolution. We illustrate the technique by time-resolved imaging of the nonlinear reshaping of a laser-excited picosecond acoustic pulse after propagation through a thin gold layer. Image analysis reveals the direct 2D visualization of the nonlinear acoustic propagation of the picosecond acoustic pulse. Many ultrafast pump-probe investigations can profit from this technique because of the wealth of information it provides over a typical single diode and lock-in amplifier setup, for example it can be used to image ultrasonic echoes in biological samples.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. P. J. S. van Capel, J. I. Dijkhuis, “Optical generation and detection of shock waves in sapphire at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 151910 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Bojahr, M. Herzog, D. Schick, I. Vrejoiu, M. Bargheer, “Calibrated real-time detection of nonlinearly propagating strain waves,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 144306 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. P. J. S. van Capel, J. I. Dijkhuis, “Time-resolved interferometric detection of ultrashort strain solitons in sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(9), 144106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. D. H. Feng, X. Q. Pan, X. Li, T. Q. Jia, Z. R. Sun, “Coherent acoustic phonon generation and detection by femtosecond laser pulses in ZnTe single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093513 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  38. T. Pezeril, V. Gusev, D. Mounier, P. Ruello, “Surface motion induced by laser action on opaque anisotropic crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 1421–1428 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  39. T. Pezeril, P. Ruello, N. Chigarev, S. Gougeon, D. Mounier, J.-M. Breteau, P. Picart, V. Gusev, “Generation and detection of plane coherent shear picosecond acoustic pulses by lasers: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 174307 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  40. T. Pezeril, C. Klieber, S. Andrieu, K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation of gigahertz-frequency shear acoustic waves in liquid glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 107402 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. C. Klieber, T. Pezeril, S. Andrieu, K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and detection of gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in liquids: theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 013502 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  42. M. Ducousso, O. E.-F. Zouani, C. Chanseau, C. Chollet, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, M.-C. Durrieu, “Evaluation of mechanical properties of fixed bone cells with sub-micrometer thickness by picosecond ultrasonics,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61(10), 11201 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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  44. http://perso.univ-lemans.fr/~tpezeril/crbst_5.html

2013 (8)

C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, B. K. Ofori-Okai, P. Sivarajah, K. A. Nelson, “High-resolution, low-noise imaging in THz polaritonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 239–247 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Peronne, E. Charron, S. Vincent, S. Sauvage, A. Lemaitre, B. Perrin, B. Jusserand, “Two-color femtosecond strobe lighting of coherent acoustic phonons emitted by quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 043107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4(6), 1468 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Matsuda, M. Tomoda, T. Tachizaki, “Ultrafast ellipsometric interferometry for direct detection of coherent phonon strain pulse profiles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1911–1921 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Manke, A. A. Maznev, C. Klieber, V. Shalagatskyi, V. V. Temnov, D. Makarov, S.-H. Baek, C.-B. Eom, K. A. Nelson, “Measurement of shorter-than-skin-depth acoustic pulses in a metal film via transient reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 173104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Feng, X. Q. Pan, X. Li, T. Q. Jia, Z. R. Sun, “Coherent acoustic phonon generation and detection by femtosecond laser pulses in ZnTe single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ducousso, O. E.-F. Zouani, C. Chanseau, C. Chollet, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, M.-C. Durrieu, “Evaluation of mechanical properties of fixed bone cells with sub-micrometer thickness by picosecond ultrasonics,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61(10), 11201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Kovalenko, T. Pezeril, V. Temnov, “New concept for magnetization switching by ultrafast acoustic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(5), 266602 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

C. Klieber, T. Pezeril, S. Andrieu, K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and detection of gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in liquids: theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 013502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Bojahr, M. Herzog, D. Schick, I. Vrejoiu, M. Bargheer, “Calibrated real-time detection of nonlinearly propagating strain waves,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 144306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Hettich, K. Jacob, O. Ristow, C. He, J. Mayer, M. Schubert, V. Gusev, A. Bruchhausen, T. Dekorsy, “Imaging of a patterned and buried molecular layer by coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 191606 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

S. Zhang, E. Peronne, L. Belliard, S. Vincent, B. Perrin, “Three-dimensional acoustic wavefront imaging in anisotropic systems by picosecond acoustics,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 033507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Amziane, L. Belliard, F. Decremps, B. Perrin, “Ultrafast acoustic resonance spectroscopy of gold nanostructures: Towards a generation of tunable transverse waves,” Phys. Rev. B 83(7), 014102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Pezeril, G. Saini, D. Veysset, S. Kooi, P. Fidkowski, R. Radovitzky, K. A. Nelson, “Direct visualization of laser-driven focusing shock waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(4), 214503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pontecorvo, M. Ortolani, D. Polli, M. Ferretti, G. Ruocco, G. Cerullo, T. Scopigno, “Visualizing coherent phonon propagation in the 100 GHz range: A broadband picosecond acoustics approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 011901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Dilhaire, G. Pernot, G. Calbris, J. M. Rampnoux, S. Grauby, “Heterodyne picosecond thermoreflectance applied to nanoscale thermal metrology,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(13), 114314 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

P.-A. Mante, A. Devos, A. Le Louarn, “Generation of terahertz acoustic waves in semiconductor quantum dots using femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 81(11), 113305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. S. van Capel, J. I. Dijkhuis, “Time-resolved interferometric detection of ultrashort strain solitons in sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(9), 144106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Smith, R. A. Light, S. D. Sharples, N. S. Johnston, M. C. Pitter, M. G. Somekh, “Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 024901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dehoux, O. B. Wright, R. Li Voti, “Picosecond time scale imaging of mechanical contacts,” Ultrasonics 50, 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Min, D. G. Cahill, S. Granick, “Time-resolved ellipsometry for studies of heat transfer at liquid/solid and gas/solid interfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(7), 074902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

T. Pezeril, C. Klieber, S. Andrieu, K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation of gigahertz-frequency shear acoustic waves in liquid glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 107402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Q. Miao, A. V. Nurmikko, H. J. Marisa, “Picosecond ultrasonic measurements using an optical cavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083516 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

T. Pezeril, F. Leon, D. Chateigner, S. Kooi, K. A. Nelson, “Picosecond photoexcitation of acoustic waves in locally canted gold films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 061908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Smith, M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. C. Pitter, I. Harrison, C. Rossignol, “Parallel detection of low modulation depth signals: application to picosecond ultrasonics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 055301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tomoda, O. Matsuda, O. B. Wright, R. L. Voti, “Tomographic reconstruction of picosecond acoustic strain propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pezeril, P. Ruello, N. Chigarev, S. Gougeon, D. Mounier, J.-M. Breteau, P. Picart, V. Gusev, “Generation and detection of plane coherent shear picosecond acoustic pulses by lasers: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 174307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. Peronne, B. Perrin, “Generation and detection of acoustic solitons in crystalline slabs by laser ultrasonics,” Ultrasonics 44, 1203–1207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. S. van Capel, J. I. Dijkhuis, “Optical generation and detection of shock waves in sapphire at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 151910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Lin, C.-T. Yu, S.-Z. Sun, H.-P. Chen, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S.-W. Huang, P.-C. Li, C.-K. Sun, “Two-dimensional nanoultrasonic imaging by using acoustic nanowaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 043106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Pezeril, V. Gusev, D. Mounier, P. Ruello, “Surface motion induced by laser action on opaque anisotropic crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 1421–1428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, S. Pau, “Imaging nanostructures with coherent phonon pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5180–5182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, V. E. Gusev, “Watching ripples on crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(4), 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. Y. Hao, H. J. Maris, “Experiments with acoustic solitons in crystalline solids,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 064302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

B. Perrin, B. Bonello, J. C. Jeannet, E. Romatet, “Interferometric detection of hypersound waves in modulated structures, ” Prog. Nat. Sci. Suppl. 6, S444 (1996).

1992 (1)

O. B. Wright, K. Kawashima, “Coherent phonon detection from ultrafast surface vibrations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668–1671 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

C. Thomsen, H. T. Grahn, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, “Surface generation and detection of phonons by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 4129–4138 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Y. Hiki, A. V. Granato, “Anharmonicity in noble metals; higher order elastic constants,” Phys. Rev. 144, 411–419 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4(6), 1468 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amziane, A.

A. Amziane, L. Belliard, F. Decremps, B. Perrin, “Ultrafast acoustic resonance spectroscopy of gold nanostructures: Towards a generation of tunable transverse waves,” Phys. Rev. B 83(7), 014102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andrieu, S.

C. Klieber, T. Pezeril, S. Andrieu, K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and detection of gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in liquids: theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 013502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Pezeril, C. Klieber, S. Andrieu, K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation of gigahertz-frequency shear acoustic waves in liquid glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 107402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Audoin, B.

M. Ducousso, O. E.-F. Zouani, C. Chanseau, C. Chollet, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, M.-C. Durrieu, “Evaluation of mechanical properties of fixed bone cells with sub-micrometer thickness by picosecond ultrasonics,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61(10), 11201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baek, S.-H.

K. J. Manke, A. A. Maznev, C. Klieber, V. Shalagatskyi, V. V. Temnov, D. Makarov, S.-H. Baek, C.-B. Eom, K. A. Nelson, “Measurement of shorter-than-skin-depth acoustic pulses in a metal film via transient reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 173104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bargheer, M.

A. Bojahr, M. Herzog, D. Schick, I. Vrejoiu, M. Bargheer, “Calibrated real-time detection of nonlinearly propagating strain waves,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 144306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belliard, L.

A. Amziane, L. Belliard, F. Decremps, B. Perrin, “Ultrafast acoustic resonance spectroscopy of gold nanostructures: Towards a generation of tunable transverse waves,” Phys. Rev. B 83(7), 014102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, E. Peronne, L. Belliard, S. Vincent, B. Perrin, “Three-dimensional acoustic wavefront imaging in anisotropic systems by picosecond acoustics,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 033507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bojahr, A.

A. Bojahr, M. Herzog, D. Schick, I. Vrejoiu, M. Bargheer, “Calibrated real-time detection of nonlinearly propagating strain waves,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 144306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bonello, B.

B. Perrin, B. Bonello, J. C. Jeannet, E. Romatet, “Interferometric detection of hypersound waves in modulated structures, ” Prog. Nat. Sci. Suppl. 6, S444 (1996).

Bourquin, S.

Bower, J. E.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, S. Pau, “Imaging nanostructures with coherent phonon pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5180–5182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Branciard, C.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, S. Pau, “Imaging nanostructures with coherent phonon pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5180–5182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bratschitsch, R.

V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4(6), 1468 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breteau, J.-M.

T. Pezeril, P. Ruello, N. Chigarev, S. Gougeon, D. Mounier, J.-M. Breteau, P. Picart, V. Gusev, “Generation and detection of plane coherent shear picosecond acoustic pulses by lasers: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 174307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bruchhausen, A.

M. Hettich, K. Jacob, O. Ristow, C. He, J. Mayer, M. Schubert, V. Gusev, A. Bruchhausen, T. Dekorsy, “Imaging of a patterned and buried molecular layer by coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 191606 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buma, T.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, S. Pau, “Imaging nanostructures with coherent phonon pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5180–5182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, D. G.

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T. Pezeril, F. Leon, D. Chateigner, S. Kooi, K. A. Nelson, “Picosecond photoexcitation of acoustic waves in locally canted gold films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 061908 (2008).
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M. Hettich, K. Jacob, O. Ristow, C. He, J. Mayer, M. Schubert, V. Gusev, A. Bruchhausen, T. Dekorsy, “Imaging of a patterned and buried molecular layer by coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 191606 (2012).
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M. Ducousso, O. E.-F. Zouani, C. Chanseau, C. Chollet, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, M.-C. Durrieu, “Evaluation of mechanical properties of fixed bone cells with sub-micrometer thickness by picosecond ultrasonics,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61(10), 11201 (2013).
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M. Ducousso, O. E.-F. Zouani, C. Chanseau, C. Chollet, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, M.-C. Durrieu, “Evaluation of mechanical properties of fixed bone cells with sub-micrometer thickness by picosecond ultrasonics,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61(10), 11201 (2013).
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K. J. Manke, A. A. Maznev, C. Klieber, V. Shalagatskyi, V. V. Temnov, D. Makarov, S.-H. Baek, C.-B. Eom, K. A. Nelson, “Measurement of shorter-than-skin-depth acoustic pulses in a metal film via transient reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 173104 (2013).
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D. H. Feng, X. Q. Pan, X. Li, T. Q. Jia, Z. R. Sun, “Coherent acoustic phonon generation and detection by femtosecond laser pulses in ZnTe single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093513 (2013).
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S. Dilhaire, G. Pernot, G. Calbris, J. M. Rampnoux, S. Grauby, “Heterodyne picosecond thermoreflectance applied to nanoscale thermal metrology,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(13), 114314 (2011).
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K.-H. Lin, C.-T. Yu, S.-Z. Sun, H.-P. Chen, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S.-W. Huang, P.-C. Li, C.-K. Sun, “Two-dimensional nanoultrasonic imaging by using acoustic nanowaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 043106 (2006).
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E. Peronne, E. Charron, S. Vincent, S. Sauvage, A. Lemaitre, B. Perrin, B. Jusserand, “Two-color femtosecond strobe lighting of coherent acoustic phonons emitted by quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 043107 (2013).
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V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4(6), 1468 (2013).
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C. Klieber, T. Pezeril, S. Andrieu, K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and detection of gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in liquids: theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 013502 (2012).
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V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4(6), 1468 (2013).
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T. Pezeril, G. Saini, D. Veysset, S. Kooi, P. Fidkowski, R. Radovitzky, K. A. Nelson, “Direct visualization of laser-driven focusing shock waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(4), 214503 (2011).
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T. Pezeril, F. Leon, D. Chateigner, S. Kooi, K. A. Nelson, “Picosecond photoexcitation of acoustic waves in locally canted gold films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 061908 (2008).
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K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 704–708 (2007).
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Le Louarn, A.

P.-A. Mante, A. Devos, A. Le Louarn, “Generation of terahertz acoustic waves in semiconductor quantum dots using femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 81(11), 113305 (2010).
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T. Pezeril, F. Leon, D. Chateigner, S. Kooi, K. A. Nelson, “Picosecond photoexcitation of acoustic waves in locally canted gold films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 061908 (2008).
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K.-H. Lin, C.-T. Yu, S.-Z. Sun, H.-P. Chen, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S.-W. Huang, P.-C. Li, C.-K. Sun, “Two-dimensional nanoultrasonic imaging by using acoustic nanowaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 043106 (2006).
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Li, X.

D. H. Feng, X. Q. Pan, X. Li, T. Q. Jia, Z. R. Sun, “Coherent acoustic phonon generation and detection by femtosecond laser pulses in ZnTe single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093513 (2013).
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Y. Li, Q. Miao, A. V. Nurmikko, H. J. Marisa, “Picosecond ultrasonic measurements using an optical cavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083516 (2009).
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T. Dehoux, O. B. Wright, R. Li Voti, “Picosecond time scale imaging of mechanical contacts,” Ultrasonics 50, 197–201 (2010).
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R. J. Smith, R. A. Light, S. D. Sharples, N. S. Johnston, M. C. Pitter, M. G. Somekh, “Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 024901 (2010).
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K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 704–708 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Lin, C.-T. Yu, S.-Z. Sun, H.-P. Chen, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S.-W. Huang, P.-C. Li, C.-K. Sun, “Two-dimensional nanoultrasonic imaging by using acoustic nanowaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 043106 (2006).
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K. J. Manke, A. A. Maznev, C. Klieber, V. Shalagatskyi, V. V. Temnov, D. Makarov, S.-H. Baek, C.-B. Eom, K. A. Nelson, “Measurement of shorter-than-skin-depth acoustic pulses in a metal film via transient reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 173104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4(6), 1468 (2013).
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K. J. Manke, A. A. Maznev, C. Klieber, V. Shalagatskyi, V. V. Temnov, D. Makarov, S.-H. Baek, C.-B. Eom, K. A. Nelson, “Measurement of shorter-than-skin-depth acoustic pulses in a metal film via transient reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 173104 (2013).
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P.-A. Mante, A. Devos, A. Le Louarn, “Generation of terahertz acoustic waves in semiconductor quantum dots using femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 81(11), 113305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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H. Y. Hao, H. J. Maris, “Experiments with acoustic solitons in crystalline solids,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 064302 (2001).
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C. Thomsen, H. T. Grahn, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, “Surface generation and detection of phonons by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 4129–4138 (1986).
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M. Hettich, K. Jacob, O. Ristow, C. He, J. Mayer, M. Schubert, V. Gusev, A. Bruchhausen, T. Dekorsy, “Imaging of a patterned and buried molecular layer by coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 191606 (2012).
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K. J. Manke, A. A. Maznev, C. Klieber, V. Shalagatskyi, V. V. Temnov, D. Makarov, S.-H. Baek, C.-B. Eom, K. A. Nelson, “Measurement of shorter-than-skin-depth acoustic pulses in a metal film via transient reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 173104 (2013).
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C.-K. Min, D. G. Cahill, S. Granick, “Time-resolved ellipsometry for studies of heat transfer at liquid/solid and gas/solid interfaces,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(7), 074902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Pezeril, P. Ruello, N. Chigarev, S. Gougeon, D. Mounier, J.-M. Breteau, P. Picart, V. Gusev, “Generation and detection of plane coherent shear picosecond acoustic pulses by lasers: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 174307 (2007).
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T. Pezeril, V. Gusev, D. Mounier, P. Ruello, “Surface motion induced by laser action on opaque anisotropic crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 1421–1428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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K. J. Manke, A. A. Maznev, C. Klieber, V. Shalagatskyi, V. V. Temnov, D. Makarov, S.-H. Baek, C.-B. Eom, K. A. Nelson, “Measurement of shorter-than-skin-depth acoustic pulses in a metal film via transient reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 173104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Temnov, C. Klieber, K. A. Nelson, T. Thomay, V. Knittel, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Makarov, M. Albrecht, R. Bratschitsch, “Femtosecond nonlinear ultrasonics in gold probed with ultrashort surface plasmons,” Nat. Commun. 4(6), 1468 (2013).
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E. Pontecorvo, M. Ortolani, D. Polli, M. Ferretti, G. Ruocco, G. Cerullo, T. Scopigno, “Visualizing coherent phonon propagation in the 100 GHz range: A broadband picosecond acoustics approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 011901 (2011).
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K.-H. Lin, C.-T. Yu, S.-Z. Sun, H.-P. Chen, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S.-W. Huang, P.-C. Li, C.-K. Sun, “Two-dimensional nanoultrasonic imaging by using acoustic nanowaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 043106 (2006).
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D. H. Feng, X. Q. Pan, X. Li, T. Q. Jia, Z. R. Sun, “Coherent acoustic phonon generation and detection by femtosecond laser pulses in ZnTe single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093513 (2013).
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S. Zhang, E. Peronne, L. Belliard, S. Vincent, B. Perrin, “Three-dimensional acoustic wavefront imaging in anisotropic systems by picosecond acoustics,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 033507 (2011).
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O. Kovalenko, T. Pezeril, V. Temnov, “New concept for magnetization switching by ultrafast acoustic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(5), 266602 (2013).
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C. Klieber, T. Pezeril, S. Andrieu, K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation and detection of gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in liquids: theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(11), 013502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Pezeril, G. Saini, D. Veysset, S. Kooi, P. Fidkowski, R. Radovitzky, K. A. Nelson, “Direct visualization of laser-driven focusing shock waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(4), 214503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pezeril, C. Klieber, S. Andrieu, K. A. Nelson, “Optical generation of gigahertz-frequency shear acoustic waves in liquid glycerol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 107402 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pezeril, F. Leon, D. Chateigner, S. Kooi, K. A. Nelson, “Picosecond photoexcitation of acoustic waves in locally canted gold films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 061908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Pezeril, P. Ruello, N. Chigarev, S. Gougeon, D. Mounier, J.-M. Breteau, P. Picart, V. Gusev, “Generation and detection of plane coherent shear picosecond acoustic pulses by lasers: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 174307 (2007).
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R. J. Smith, M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. C. Pitter, I. Harrison, C. Rossignol, “Parallel detection of low modulation depth signals: application to picosecond ultrasonics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 055301 (2008).
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E. Pontecorvo, M. Ortolani, D. Polli, M. Ferretti, G. Ruocco, G. Cerullo, T. Scopigno, “Visualizing coherent phonon propagation in the 100 GHz range: A broadband picosecond acoustics approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 011901 (2011).
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Prasankumar, R. P.

Radovitzky, R.

T. Pezeril, G. Saini, D. Veysset, S. Kooi, P. Fidkowski, R. Radovitzky, K. A. Nelson, “Direct visualization of laser-driven focusing shock waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(4), 214503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rampnoux, J. M.

S. Dilhaire, G. Pernot, G. Calbris, J. M. Rampnoux, S. Grauby, “Heterodyne picosecond thermoreflectance applied to nanoscale thermal metrology,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(13), 114314 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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M. Hettich, K. Jacob, O. Ristow, C. He, J. Mayer, M. Schubert, V. Gusev, A. Bruchhausen, T. Dekorsy, “Imaging of a patterned and buried molecular layer by coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 191606 (2012).
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M. Ducousso, O. E.-F. Zouani, C. Chanseau, C. Chollet, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, M.-C. Durrieu, “Evaluation of mechanical properties of fixed bone cells with sub-micrometer thickness by picosecond ultrasonics,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61(10), 11201 (2013).
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R. J. Smith, M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. C. Pitter, I. Harrison, C. Rossignol, “Parallel detection of low modulation depth signals: application to picosecond ultrasonics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 055301 (2008).
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T. Pezeril, P. Ruello, N. Chigarev, S. Gougeon, D. Mounier, J.-M. Breteau, P. Picart, V. Gusev, “Generation and detection of plane coherent shear picosecond acoustic pulses by lasers: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 174307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Pezeril, V. Gusev, D. Mounier, P. Ruello, “Surface motion induced by laser action on opaque anisotropic crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 1421–1428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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E. Pontecorvo, M. Ortolani, D. Polli, M. Ferretti, G. Ruocco, G. Cerullo, T. Scopigno, “Visualizing coherent phonon propagation in the 100 GHz range: A broadband picosecond acoustics approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 011901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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T. Pezeril, G. Saini, D. Veysset, S. Kooi, P. Fidkowski, R. Radovitzky, K. A. Nelson, “Direct visualization of laser-driven focusing shock waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(4), 214503 (2011).
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T. Saito, O. Matsuda, O. B. Wright, “Picosecond acoustic phonon pulse generation in nickel and chromium,” Phys. Rev. B 67(7), 205421 (2003).
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Salathe, R. P.

Sauvage, S.

E. Peronne, E. Charron, S. Vincent, S. Sauvage, A. Lemaitre, B. Perrin, B. Jusserand, “Two-color femtosecond strobe lighting of coherent acoustic phonons emitted by quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 043107 (2013).
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A. Bojahr, M. Herzog, D. Schick, I. Vrejoiu, M. Bargheer, “Calibrated real-time detection of nonlinearly propagating strain waves,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 144306 (2012).
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M. Hettich, K. Jacob, O. Ristow, C. He, J. Mayer, M. Schubert, V. Gusev, A. Bruchhausen, T. Dekorsy, “Imaging of a patterned and buried molecular layer by coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 191606 (2012).
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E. Pontecorvo, M. Ortolani, D. Polli, M. Ferretti, G. Ruocco, G. Cerullo, T. Scopigno, “Visualizing coherent phonon propagation in the 100 GHz range: A broadband picosecond acoustics approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 011901 (2011).
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R. J. Smith, R. A. Light, S. D. Sharples, N. S. Johnston, M. C. Pitter, M. G. Somekh, “Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 024901 (2010).
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R. J. Smith, M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. C. Pitter, I. Harrison, C. Rossignol, “Parallel detection of low modulation depth signals: application to picosecond ultrasonics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 055301 (2008).
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K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 704–708 (2007).
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C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, B. K. Ofori-Okai, P. Sivarajah, K. A. Nelson, “High-resolution, low-noise imaging in THz polaritonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 239–247 (2013).
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R. J. Smith, R. A. Light, S. D. Sharples, N. S. Johnston, M. C. Pitter, M. G. Somekh, “Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 024901 (2010).
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R. J. Smith, M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. C. Pitter, I. Harrison, C. Rossignol, “Parallel detection of low modulation depth signals: application to picosecond ultrasonics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 055301 (2008).
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R. J. Smith, R. A. Light, S. D. Sharples, N. S. Johnston, M. C. Pitter, M. G. Somekh, “Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 024901 (2010).
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R. J. Smith, M. G. Somekh, S. D. Sharples, M. C. Pitter, I. Harrison, C. Rossignol, “Parallel detection of low modulation depth signals: application to picosecond ultrasonics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 055301 (2008).
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K.-H. Lin, C.-T. Yu, S.-Z. Sun, H.-P. Chen, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S.-W. Huang, P.-C. Li, C.-K. Sun, “Two-dimensional nanoultrasonic imaging by using acoustic nanowaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 043106 (2006).
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K.-H. Lin, C.-M. Lai, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, J.-W. Shi, S.-Z. Sun, C.-F. Chang, C.-K. Sun, “Spatial manipulation of nanoacoustic waves with nanoscale spot sizes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 704–708 (2007).
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K.-H. Lin, C.-T. Yu, S.-Z. Sun, H.-P. Chen, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S.-W. Huang, P.-C. Li, C.-K. Sun, “Two-dimensional nanoultrasonic imaging by using acoustic nanowaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 043106 (2006).
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D. H. Feng, X. Q. Pan, X. Li, T. Q. Jia, Z. R. Sun, “Coherent acoustic phonon generation and detection by femtosecond laser pulses in ZnTe single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093513 (2013).
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Takigahira, M.

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, V. E. Gusev, “Watching ripples on crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(4), 185504 (2002).
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K. J. Manke, A. A. Maznev, C. Klieber, V. Shalagatskyi, V. V. Temnov, D. Makarov, S.-H. Baek, C.-B. Eom, K. A. Nelson, “Measurement of shorter-than-skin-depth acoustic pulses in a metal film via transient reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 173104 (2013).
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B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, S. Pau, “Imaging nanostructures with coherent phonon pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5180–5182 (2004).
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C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, B. K. Ofori-Okai, P. Sivarajah, K. A. Nelson, “High-resolution, low-noise imaging in THz polaritonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3, 239–247 (2013).
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E. Peronne, E. Charron, S. Vincent, S. Sauvage, A. Lemaitre, B. Perrin, B. Jusserand, “Two-color femtosecond strobe lighting of coherent acoustic phonons emitted by quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 043107 (2013).
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M. Ducousso, O. E.-F. Zouani, C. Chanseau, C. Chollet, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, M.-C. Durrieu, “Evaluation of mechanical properties of fixed bone cells with sub-micrometer thickness by picosecond ultrasonics,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61(10), 11201 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

K.-H. Lin, C.-T. Yu, S.-Z. Sun, H.-P. Chen, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S.-W. Huang, P.-C. Li, C.-K. Sun, “Two-dimensional nanoultrasonic imaging by using acoustic nanowaves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 043106 (2006).
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M. Tomoda, O. Matsuda, O. B. Wright, R. L. Voti, “Tomographic reconstruction of picosecond acoustic strain propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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http://perso.univ-lemans.fr/~tpezeril/crbst_5.html

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (3371 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Sketch of the femtosecond pump-probe imaging experimental setup. The ×50 microscope objective is adjusted to image the front of the sample surface by a 400 nm probe onto the CCD camera with high magnification. A 20 cm lens before the beam splitter is used to illuminate the whole CCD sensor. The 800 nm pump beam that excites the transient phenomenon is focused on the back of the sample by a ×10 microscope objective. The stage controller synchronously triggers the pump beam modulation and the image acquisition during the continuous motion of the high speed delay-line. After image processing, we obtain sequences of images showing picosecond time resolved evolution of the photoexcited phenomena. b) The pump beam is in focus at the sample surface where the light intensity forms a 2D gaussian profile with a FWHM of about 10 μm. c) The sample investigated here is a metallic multilayer structure composed of a 210 nm gold (Au) layer and a 30 nm cobalt (Co) layer coated on a sapphire substrate. The pump beam is focused on the back side of the sample at the cobalt layer while the probe beam is used to image the front gold free surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

After image processing, we obtain a sequence of images showing time resolved evolution of the transient reflectivity ΔR/R on a picosecond time scale. Here, we show selected images from τ = 56 ps to 83 ps after the pump excitation of the acoustic pulse - see the supplementary material online for the full sequence ( Media 1). In the present case, the arrival of the laser excited acoustic pulse from the cobalt layer at the gold front surface slightly modifies the gold optical reflectivity. Each image of the transient reflectivity ΔR/R at different time delays is a display of the 2D acousto-optic response. The transient reflectivity change reaches about −4×10−3 at the blue center part of the images. The fact that the center blue part on the images reaches two pseudo-maxima at τ = 63 ps and 72.7 ps is inherent to the acousto-optic detection of an unipolar acoustic pulse at a free surface. The orange edge part which changes the transient reflectivity by about 2×10−3 and appears at different time delays compared to the blue center part is the signature of the nonlinear acoustic propagation of the acoustic pulse trough gold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) and b) After image processing, every transient reflectivity image at each time delay has been numerically split in 4 different areas and a reference area defined by an image mask. These five areas of the image mask include Area 1 which comprises the center of the transient reflectivity maximum, Areas 2 through 4 as concentric areas around the center and the Reference Area with negligible pump induced transient reflectivity signal which is used as a noise reference image. c) Mean transient reflectivity signal of each of the four concentric areas. d) The signal-to-noise level is increased by a factor of 3 when the noise reference Area is used in the image processing. e) The smoothed time derivatives of the signals shown in d) reveal different arrival times of the acoustic pulse at the front gold surface for different areas corresponding to different laser pump power inputs. We observe a 1.6 ps time difference between the areas of maximum (Area 1) and minimum (Area 4) pump fluence which is in close agreement with the calculated estimates of the nonlinear acoustic propagation in gold.

Equations (2)

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Δ I I ( i ) = 2 ( I 2 i + 1 I 2 i ) I 2 i + 1 + I 2 i = Δ R R ( i ) ,
Δ R R ( τ ) 0 + s ( z ) η ( z , τ ) d z ,

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