Abstract

In this paper, we report on the precise determination of the orientation of NV centers by imaging with a radially polarized beam. Vectorial Debye theory is applied to the field in the focus of radially polarized beams to generate emission profiles of two orthogonal optical dipoles. By comparing features of the measured emission intensity patterns with simulated results, complete orientation determination of the NV axis is achieved. Results are corroborated by using established methods requiring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized excitation source, and by analysis of optically detected magnetic resonance spectra. These results lay new ground for any application where the knowledge of the orientation of the NV centers is prerequisite.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. B. Sick, B. Hecht, L. Novotny, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by annular illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(21), 4482–4485 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  36. L. M. Pham, N. Bar-Gill, D. Le Sage, C. Belthangady, A. Stacey, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, “Enhanced metrology using preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 121202 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. K. Youngworth, T. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7(2), 77–87 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (9)

D. Le Sage, K. Arai, D. R. Glenn, S. J. DeVience, L. M. Pham, L. Rahn-Lee, M. D. Lukin, A. Yacoby, A. Komeili, R. L. Walsworth, “Optical magnetic imaging of living cells,” Nature 496(7446), 486–489 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Hall, D. A. Simpson, L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Nanoscale sensing and imaging in biology using the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond,” MRS Bull. 38(02), 162–167 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ermakova, G. Pramanik, J.-M. Cai, G. Algara-Siller, U. Kaiser, T. Weil, Y.-K. Tzeng, H. C. Chang, L. P. McGuinness, M. B. Plenio, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, “Detection of a Few Metallo-Protein Molecules Using Color Centers in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3305–3309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dolde, I. Jakobi, B. Naydenov, N. Zhao, S. Pezzagna, C. Trautmann, J. Meijer, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature entanglement between single defect spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 8, 1–5 (2013).

P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kucsko, P. C. Maurer, N. Y. Yao, M. Kubo, H. J. Noh, P. K. Lo, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, “Nanometre-scale thermometry in a living cell,” Nature 500(7460), 54–58 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Grazioso, B. R. Patton, P. Delaney, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. M. Smith, “Measurement of the full stress tensor in a crystal using photoluminescence from point defects: The example of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101905 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Ivanov, X. Li, P. R. Dolan, M. Gu, “Nonlinear absorption properties of the charge states of nitrogen-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1358–1360 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gu, Y. Cao, S. Castelletto, B. Kouskousis, X. Li, “Super-resolving single nitrogen vacancy centers within single nanodiamonds using a localization microscope,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17639–17646 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun 3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, T. Züchner, M. Steiner, A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional photoluminescence mapping and emission anisotropy of single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Pham, N. Bar-Gill, D. Le Sage, C. Belthangady, A. Stacey, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, “Enhanced metrology using preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 121202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Loncar, A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Castelletto, X. Li, M. Gu, “Frontiers in diffraction unlimited optical methods for spin manipulation, magnetic field sensing and imaging using diamond nitrogen vacancy defects,” J. Nanophotonics. 1, 139–153 (2012).

2011 (4)

W. Yang, Y. Hu, Z. Yin, Z. Deng, M. Feng, “Entanglement of nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles using transmission line resonators and a superconducting phase qubit,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 022302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Meinhardt, D. Lang, H. Dill, A. Krueger, “Pushing the functionality of fiamond nanoparticles to new horizons: orthogonally functionalized nanodiamond using click chemistry,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(3), 494–500 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, N. Mohan, T.-S. Lim, Y.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chang, “Polarization modulation spectroscopy of single fluorescent nanodiamonds with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(10), 1878–1884 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

P. Neumann, J. Beck, M. Steiner, F. Rempp, H. Fedder, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, F. Jelezko, “Single-shot readout of a single nuclear spin,” Science 329(5991), 542–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shi, X. Rong, N. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Wu, B. Chong, X. Peng, J. Kniepert, R.-S. Schoenfeld, W. Harneit, M. Feng, J. Du, “Room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 040504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Diep Lai, D. Zheng, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, “Optical determination and magnetic manipulation of a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond nanocrystal,” Adv. Nat. Sci: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1, 015014 (2010).

2009 (2)

D. A. Simpson, E. Ampem-Lassen, B. C. Gibson, S. Trpkovski, F. M. Hossain, S. T. Huntington, A. D. Greentree, L. C. L. Hollenberg, S. Prawer, “A highly efficient two level diamond based single photon source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. V. G. Dutt, L. Childress, L. Jiang, E. Togan, J. Maze, F. Jelezko, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, “Quantum register based on individual electronic and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 316(5829), 1312–1316 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

L. Childress, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Zibrov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, “Coherent dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 314(5797), 281–285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Barrett, P. Kok, “Efficient high-fidelity quantum computation using matter qubits and linear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 060310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

B. Sick, B. Hecht, L. Novotny, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by annular illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(21), 4482–4485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Youngworth, T. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7(2), 77–87 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. Gruber, A. Dra, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Science 262(5138), 1422–1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Algara-Siller, G.

A. Ermakova, G. Pramanik, J.-M. Cai, G. Algara-Siller, U. Kaiser, T. Weil, Y.-K. Tzeng, H. C. Chang, L. P. McGuinness, M. B. Plenio, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, “Detection of a Few Metallo-Protein Molecules Using Color Centers in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3305–3309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Hmoud, M.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ampem-Lassen, E.

D. A. Simpson, E. Ampem-Lassen, B. C. Gibson, S. Trpkovski, F. M. Hossain, S. T. Huntington, A. D. Greentree, L. C. L. Hollenberg, S. Prawer, “A highly efficient two level diamond based single photon source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arai, K.

D. Le Sage, K. Arai, D. R. Glenn, S. J. DeVience, L. M. Pham, L. Rahn-Lee, M. D. Lukin, A. Yacoby, A. Komeili, R. L. Walsworth, “Optical magnetic imaging of living cells,” Nature 496(7446), 486–489 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, G.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bar-Gill, N.

L. M. Pham, N. Bar-Gill, D. Le Sage, C. Belthangady, A. Stacey, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, “Enhanced metrology using preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 121202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, S.

S. Barrett, P. Kok, “Efficient high-fidelity quantum computation using matter qubits and linear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 060310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beck, J.

P. Neumann, J. Beck, M. Steiner, F. Rempp, H. Fedder, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, F. Jelezko, “Single-shot readout of a single nuclear spin,” Science 329(5991), 542–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belthangady, C.

L. M. Pham, N. Bar-Gill, D. Le Sage, C. Belthangady, A. Stacey, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, “Enhanced metrology using preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 121202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Science 262(5138), 1422–1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bratschitsch, R.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, T.

Brown, T. G.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunner, A.

P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burk, C.

P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, J.-M.

A. Ermakova, G. Pramanik, J.-M. Cai, G. Algara-Siller, U. Kaiser, T. Weil, Y.-K. Tzeng, H. C. Chang, L. P. McGuinness, M. B. Plenio, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, “Detection of a Few Metallo-Protein Molecules Using Color Centers in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3305–3309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Caruso, F.

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L. T. Hall, D. A. Simpson, L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Nanoscale sensing and imaging in biology using the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond,” MRS Bull. 38(02), 162–167 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Loncar, A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. A. Simpson, E. Ampem-Lassen, B. C. Gibson, S. Trpkovski, F. M. Hossain, S. T. Huntington, A. D. Greentree, L. C. L. Hollenberg, S. Prawer, “A highly efficient two level diamond based single photon source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Yang, Y. Hu, Z. Yin, Z. Deng, M. Feng, “Entanglement of nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles using transmission line resonators and a superconducting phase qubit,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 022302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, N. Mohan, T.-S. Lim, Y.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chang, “Polarization modulation spectroscopy of single fluorescent nanodiamonds with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(10), 1878–1884 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. A. Simpson, E. Ampem-Lassen, B. C. Gibson, S. Trpkovski, F. M. Hossain, S. T. Huntington, A. D. Greentree, L. C. L. Hollenberg, S. Prawer, “A highly efficient two level diamond based single photon source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, I. P.

Jacques, V.

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dolde, I. Jakobi, B. Naydenov, N. Zhao, S. Pezzagna, C. Trautmann, J. Meijer, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature entanglement between single defect spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 8, 1–5 (2013).

Jelezko, F.

F. Dolde, I. Jakobi, B. Naydenov, N. Zhao, S. Pezzagna, C. Trautmann, J. Meijer, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature entanglement between single defect spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 8, 1–5 (2013).

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neumann, J. Beck, M. Steiner, F. Rempp, H. Fedder, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, F. Jelezko, “Single-shot readout of a single nuclear spin,” Science 329(5991), 542–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. G. Dutt, L. Childress, L. Jiang, E. Togan, J. Maze, F. Jelezko, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, “Quantum register based on individual electronic and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 316(5829), 1312–1316 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Childress, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Zibrov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, “Coherent dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 314(5797), 281–285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

M. V. G. Dutt, L. Childress, L. Jiang, E. Togan, J. Maze, F. Jelezko, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, “Quantum register based on individual electronic and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 316(5829), 1312–1316 (2007).
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A. Ermakova, G. Pramanik, J.-M. Cai, G. Algara-Siller, U. Kaiser, T. Weil, Y.-K. Tzeng, H. C. Chang, L. P. McGuinness, M. B. Plenio, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, “Detection of a Few Metallo-Protein Molecules Using Color Centers in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3305–3309 (2013).
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L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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F. Shi, X. Rong, N. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Wu, B. Chong, X. Peng, J. Kniepert, R.-S. Schoenfeld, W. Harneit, M. Feng, J. Du, “Room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 040504 (2010).
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F. Grazioso, B. R. Patton, P. Delaney, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. M. Smith, “Measurement of the full stress tensor in a crystal using photoluminescence from point defects: The example of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101905 (2013).
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Spinicelli, P.

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stacey, A.

L. M. Pham, N. Bar-Gill, D. Le Sage, C. Belthangady, A. Stacey, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, “Enhanced metrology using preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 121202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, M.

F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, T. Züchner, M. Steiner, A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional photoluminescence mapping and emission anisotropy of single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Neumann, J. Beck, M. Steiner, F. Rempp, H. Fedder, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, F. Jelezko, “Single-shot readout of a single nuclear spin,” Science 329(5991), 542–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumiya, H.

P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, D.

P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, J. M.

L. Childress, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Zibrov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, “Coherent dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 314(5797), 281–285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J.-P.

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thiaville, A.

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. H.

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun 3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tietz, C.

A. Gruber, A. Dra, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tisler, J.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. V. G. Dutt, L. Childress, L. Jiang, E. Togan, J. Maze, F. Jelezko, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, “Quantum register based on individual electronic and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 316(5829), 1312–1316 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trautmann, C.

F. Dolde, I. Jakobi, B. Naydenov, N. Zhao, S. Pezzagna, C. Trautmann, J. Meijer, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature entanglement between single defect spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 8, 1–5 (2013).

Treussart, F.

N. Diep Lai, D. Zheng, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, “Optical determination and magnetic manipulation of a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond nanocrystal,” Adv. Nat. Sci: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1, 015014 (2010).

D. Zheng, N. D. Lai, X. Xu, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, “Orientation of the spin of a single NV color center in a diamond nanocrystal, and analysis of its optical transition dipoles,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers & Electro Optics & The Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (2009).

Trpkovski, S.

D. A. Simpson, E. Ampem-Lassen, B. C. Gibson, S. Trpkovski, F. M. Hossain, S. T. Huntington, A. D. Greentree, L. C. L. Hollenberg, S. Prawer, “A highly efficient two level diamond based single photon source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 203107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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F. Grazioso, B. R. Patton, P. Delaney, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. M. Smith, “Measurement of the full stress tensor in a crystal using photoluminescence from point defects: The example of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101905 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Pham, N. Bar-Gill, D. Le Sage, C. Belthangady, A. Stacey, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, “Enhanced metrology using preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 121202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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A. Ermakova, G. Pramanik, J.-M. Cai, G. Algara-Siller, U. Kaiser, T. Weil, Y.-K. Tzeng, H. C. Chang, L. P. McGuinness, M. B. Plenio, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, “Detection of a Few Metallo-Protein Molecules Using Color Centers in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3305–3309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Von Borczyskowski, C.

A. Gruber, A. Dra, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wackenhut, F.

F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, T. Züchner, M. Steiner, A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional photoluminescence mapping and emission anisotropy of single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsworth, R. L.

D. Le Sage, K. Arai, D. R. Glenn, S. J. DeVience, L. M. Pham, L. Rahn-Lee, M. D. Lukin, A. Yacoby, A. Komeili, R. L. Walsworth, “Optical magnetic imaging of living cells,” Nature 496(7446), 486–489 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Pham, N. Bar-Gill, D. Le Sage, C. Belthangady, A. Stacey, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, “Enhanced metrology using preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 121202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Loncar, A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Shi, X. Rong, N. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Wu, B. Chong, X. Peng, J. Kniepert, R.-S. Schoenfeld, W. Harneit, M. Feng, J. Du, “Room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 040504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Ermakova, G. Pramanik, J.-M. Cai, G. Algara-Siller, U. Kaiser, T. Weil, Y.-K. Tzeng, H. C. Chang, L. P. McGuinness, M. B. Plenio, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, “Detection of a Few Metallo-Protein Molecules Using Color Centers in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3305–3309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, T.

P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrachtrup, J.

P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dolde, I. Jakobi, B. Naydenov, N. Zhao, S. Pezzagna, C. Trautmann, J. Meijer, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature entanglement between single defect spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 8, 1–5 (2013).

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neumann, J. Beck, M. Steiner, F. Rempp, H. Fedder, P. R. Hemmer, J. Wrachtrup, F. Jelezko, “Single-shot readout of a single nuclear spin,” Science 329(5991), 542–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Childress, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Zibrov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, “Coherent dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 314(5797), 281–285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gruber, A. Dra, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, C. Von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

F. Shi, X. Rong, N. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Wu, B. Chong, X. Peng, J. Kniepert, R.-S. Schoenfeld, W. Harneit, M. Feng, J. Du, “Room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 040504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.-C.

N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, N.

F. Shi, X. Rong, N. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Wu, B. Chong, X. Peng, J. Kniepert, R.-S. Schoenfeld, W. Harneit, M. Feng, J. Du, “Room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 040504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

D. Zheng, N. D. Lai, X. Xu, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, “Orientation of the spin of a single NV color center in a diamond nanocrystal, and analysis of its optical transition dipoles,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers & Electro Optics & The Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (2009).

Yacoby, A.

D. Le Sage, K. Arai, D. R. Glenn, S. J. DeVience, L. M. Pham, L. Rahn-Lee, M. D. Lukin, A. Yacoby, A. Komeili, R. L. Walsworth, “Optical magnetic imaging of living cells,” Nature 496(7446), 486–489 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Loncar, A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(6), 358–363 (2011).
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W. Yang, Y. Hu, Z. Yin, Z. Deng, M. Feng, “Entanglement of nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles using transmission line resonators and a superconducting phase qubit,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 022302 (2011).
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G. Kucsko, P. C. Maurer, N. Y. Yao, M. Kubo, H. J. Noh, P. K. Lo, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, “Nanometre-scale thermometry in a living cell,” Nature 500(7460), 54–58 (2013).
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W. Yang, Y. Hu, Z. Yin, Z. Deng, M. Feng, “Entanglement of nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles using transmission line resonators and a superconducting phase qubit,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 022302 (2011).
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Youngworth, K. S.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
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Zhao, N.

F. Dolde, I. Jakobi, B. Naydenov, N. Zhao, S. Pezzagna, C. Trautmann, J. Meijer, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature entanglement between single defect spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 8, 1–5 (2013).

Zheng, D.

N. Diep Lai, D. Zheng, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, “Optical determination and magnetic manipulation of a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond nanocrystal,” Adv. Nat. Sci: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1, 015014 (2010).

D. Zheng, N. D. Lai, X. Xu, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, “Orientation of the spin of a single NV color center in a diamond nanocrystal, and analysis of its optical transition dipoles,” in 2009 Conference on Lasers & Electro Optics & The Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (2009).

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M. V. G. Dutt, L. Childress, L. Jiang, E. Togan, J. Maze, F. Jelezko, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, “Quantum register based on individual electronic and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 316(5829), 1312–1316 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Childress, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Zibrov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, P. R. Hemmer, M. D. Lukin, “Coherent dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 314(5797), 281–285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
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F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, T. Züchner, M. Steiner, A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional photoluminescence mapping and emission anisotropy of single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263102 (2012).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

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N. Diep Lai, D. Zheng, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, “Optical determination and magnetic manipulation of a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond nanocrystal,” Adv. Nat. Sci: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1, 015014 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, P. Spinicelli, C. Dal Savio, K. Karrai, G. Dantelle, A. Thiaville, S. Rohart, J.-F. Roch, V. Jacques, “Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153118 (2012).
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F. Wackenhut, A. V. Failla, T. Züchner, M. Steiner, A. J. Meixner, “Three-dimensional photoluminescence mapping and emission anisotropy of single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263102 (2012).
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S. Castelletto, X. Li, M. Gu, “Frontiers in diffraction unlimited optical methods for spin manipulation, magnetic field sensing and imaging using diamond nitrogen vacancy defects,” J. Nanophotonics. 1, 139–153 (2012).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, N. Mohan, T.-S. Lim, Y.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Chang, “Polarization modulation spectroscopy of single fluorescent nanodiamonds with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(10), 1878–1884 (2011).
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MRS Bull. (1)

L. T. Hall, D. A. Simpson, L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Nanoscale sensing and imaging in biology using the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond,” MRS Bull. 38(02), 162–167 (2013).
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Nano Lett. (4)

N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, H.-C. Chang, “In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3692–3699 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ermakova, G. Pramanik, J.-M. Cai, G. Algara-Siller, U. Kaiser, T. Weil, Y.-K. Tzeng, H. C. Chang, L. P. McGuinness, M. B. Plenio, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, “Detection of a Few Metallo-Protein Molecules Using Color Centers in Nanodiamonds,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3305–3309 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neumann, I. Jakobi, F. Dolde, C. Burk, R. Reuter, G. Waldherr, J. Honert, T. Wolf, A. Brunner, J. H. Shim, D. Suter, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “High-precision nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2738–2742 (2013).
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Nat Commun (1)

X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat Commun 3, 998 (2012).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Loncar, A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Dolde, I. Jakobi, B. Naydenov, N. Zhao, S. Pezzagna, C. Trautmann, J. Meijer, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature entanglement between single defect spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 8, 1–5 (2013).

Nature (4)

G. Kucsko, P. C. Maurer, N. Y. Yao, M. Kubo, H. J. Noh, P. K. Lo, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, “Nanometre-scale thermometry in a living cell,” Nature 500(7460), 54–58 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Le Sage, K. Arai, D. R. Glenn, S. J. DeVience, L. M. Pham, L. Rahn-Lee, M. D. Lukin, A. Yacoby, A. Komeili, R. L. Walsworth, “Optical magnetic imaging of living cells,” Nature 496(7446), 486–489 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

W. Yang, Y. Hu, Z. Yin, Z. Deng, M. Feng, “Entanglement of nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles using transmission line resonators and a superconducting phase qubit,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 022302 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. M. Pham, N. Bar-Gill, D. Le Sage, C. Belthangady, A. Stacey, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, “Enhanced metrology using preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 86(12), 121202 (2012).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

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L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the optical set up used to image single NV centers with radially polarized beam generated by a radial polarization converter (RPC). Microwaves were delivered though a conductive path on the coverslip. The conical expansion depicts the deposited nanodiamonds with a variety of possible orientations of NV axes. (b) Coordinate system used to label the NV axis orientation, with the optical dipoles in the orthogonal plane labelled d1 & d2. The inset shows the NV axis with respect to a unit cell in the diamond host matrix.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning confocal image of a sample with linearly polarized light (directionality indicated by upper left arrow). (b) HBT data indicating singularity of NV centers labelled 1-4. Count rates dropping to below half the 0 ns delay value indicates a positive result. (c) The same region as imaged in (a), but with a radially polarized beam (indicated by the arrows in upper left). Four NV centers are highlighted and labelled for further analysis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A range of simulated far-field emission patterns for a range of NV center orientations. The orientation of the pattern is determined by φ whilst the structure of the pattern is due to the polar angle, θ. For values of θ = 0 there is no coupling to the central z field, however as θ → 90 the component of the dipoles lying parallel to the optical axis ultimately dominates the far-field emission pattern. Each image plotted corresponds to a focal region of 1x1 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Higher resolution far-field images of the 4 centers identified in Fig. 2. Scale bar 500 nm. (b) Depiction of the orientation of each of the NV center determined by radial imaging. (c) Fluorescence dependence of each center on the orientation of the linearly polarized excitation source. For NV1 the strongest fluctuation in fluorescence is observed, corresponding to a large polar angle. NV4 exhibits very little fluctuation suggesting both optical dipoles lie almost parallel to the focal plane. Two possible values of φ are given by the location of the minima. Values for θ are calculated using Eq. (4). (d) ODMR peak splitting plotted against the orientation of the (B) field in the focal plane. The location of the maximum indicates alignment of (B) field and the projection of the NV axis on the transverse plane and is equal to φ.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Orientation of NV centers

Equations (4)

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E z ( ρ )=2i E 0 0 α cos(θ) sin 2 (θ) J 0 (kρsin(θ)) e ikcos(θ) dθ .
E z ( ρ )= E 0 0 α cos(θ) sin(2θ) J 1 (kρsin(θ)) e ikcos(θ) dθ .
I(x,y)= | ( d 1 ·E(x,y))+( d 2 ·E(x,y)) | 2 .
θ = cos 1 I min I max .

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