Abstract

This paper deals with radiation’s contribution to thermal insulation. The mechanism by which a stack of absorbers limits radiative heat transfer is examined in detail both for black-body shields and grey-body shields. It shows that radiation energy transfer rates should be much faster than conduction rates. It demonstrates that, for opaque screens, increased reflectivity will dramatically reduce the rate of heat transfer, improving thermal insulation. This simple model is thought to contribute to the understanding of how animal furs, human clothes, rockwool insulators, thermo-protective containers, and many other passive energy-saving devices operate.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. E. M. Liwanag, A. Berta, D. P. Costa, M. Abney, T. M. Williams, “Morphological and thermal properties of mammalian insulation: the evolution of fur for aquatic living,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 106, 926–939 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B.J. Teerink, Hair of West-European Mammals (Cambridge University, 1991).
  3. P. R. Morrison, W. J. Tietz, “Cooling and thermal conductivity in three small Alaskan mammals,” J. Mammal. 38(1), 78–86 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. F. Herreid, B. Kessel, “Thermal conductance in birds and mammals,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 21(2), 405–414 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. S. Bakken, “Wind speed dependence of the overall thermal conductance of fur and feather insulation,” J. Therm. Biol. 16(2), 121–126 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. McLoughlin, Synapsida: A New Look into the Origin of Mammals (Viking, 1980).
  7. R. J. G. Savage, M. R. Long, Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide (Facts On File Inc., 1986).
  8. P. F. Scholander, R. Hock, V. Walters, L. Irving, “Adaptation to cold in artic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation and basal metabolic rate,” Biol. Bull. 99(2), 259–271 (1950).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Dawson, J. F. V. Vincent, G. Jeronimidis, G. Rice, P. Forshaw, “Heat transfer through penguin feathers,” J. Theor. Biol. 199, 291–295 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. D. Stahel, S. C. Nicol, “Temperature regulation in the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, in air and water,” J. Comp. Physiol. 148, 93–100 (1982).
  11. L. B. Davis, R. C. Birkebak, “Convective energy transfer in fur,” in Perspectives in Biophysical Ecology, Vol. 12 of Ecological Studies (Springer, 1975), pp. 525–548.
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. E. Walsberg, “The significance of fur structure for solar heat gain in the rock squirrel, Spermophilus variegatus,” J. Exp. Biol. 138, 243–257 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  13. G. E. Walsberg, “Consequences of skin color and fur properties for solar heat gain and ultraviolet irradiance in two mammals,” J. Comp. Physiol. B 158(2), 213–221 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Skowron, M. Kern, “The insulation in nests of selected North-American songbirds,” Auk 97(4), 816–824 (1980).
  15. G. Rybicki, A. P. Lightman, Radiative Processes in Astrophysics, (Wiley-Interscience, 1979).
  16. K. Stephan, A. Laesecke, “The thermal conductivity of fluid air,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14(1), 227–234 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. M. Soukoulis, Photonic Band Gaps and Localization Nato ASI series B 308(Plenum, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Langendijk, B. van Tiggelen, D. S. Wiersma, “Fifty years of Anderson localization,” Phys. Today 62(8), 24–29 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. G. Somes, R. E. Burger, “Inheritance of the white and pied plumage color patterns in the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus),” J. Hered 84(1), 57–62 (1993).
  20. S. Yoshioka, S. Kinoshita, “Effect of macroscopic structure in iridescent color of the peacock feathers,” Forma 17, 169–181 (2002).
  21. J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. M. Weiss, H. O. K. Kirchner, “The peacock’s train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) I. Structure, mechanics, and chemistry of the tail feather,” J. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol. 313, 690–703 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Soulen, “James Dewar, his flask and other achievements,” Phys. Today 49(3), 32–37 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. U. Sivert, A. Heidi, “Thermal insulation performance of reflective material layers in well insulated timber frame structures,” in Proceedings of 8th Symp. Building Physics in the Nordic Countries1, 1–8 (2008).
  26. T. I. Ward, S. M. Doran, “The thermal performance of multi-foil insulation,” U. K. Government Building Regulation Report, (2005).

2012 (1)

H. E. M. Liwanag, A. Berta, D. P. Costa, M. Abney, T. M. Williams, “Morphological and thermal properties of mammalian insulation: the evolution of fur for aquatic living,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 106, 926–939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

I. M. Weiss, H. O. K. Kirchner, “The peacock’s train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) I. Structure, mechanics, and chemistry of the tail feather,” J. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol. 313, 690–703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Langendijk, B. van Tiggelen, D. S. Wiersma, “Fifty years of Anderson localization,” Phys. Today 62(8), 24–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Yoshioka, S. Kinoshita, “Effect of macroscopic structure in iridescent color of the peacock feathers,” Forma 17, 169–181 (2002).

1999 (1)

C. Dawson, J. F. V. Vincent, G. Jeronimidis, G. Rice, P. Forshaw, “Heat transfer through penguin feathers,” J. Theor. Biol. 199, 291–295 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. Soulen, “James Dewar, his flask and other achievements,” Phys. Today 49(3), 32–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. G. Somes, R. E. Burger, “Inheritance of the white and pied plumage color patterns in the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus),” J. Hered 84(1), 57–62 (1993).

1991 (1)

G. S. Bakken, “Wind speed dependence of the overall thermal conductance of fur and feather insulation,” J. Therm. Biol. 16(2), 121–126 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

G. E. Walsberg, “The significance of fur structure for solar heat gain in the rock squirrel, Spermophilus variegatus,” J. Exp. Biol. 138, 243–257 (1988).
[PubMed]

G. E. Walsberg, “Consequences of skin color and fur properties for solar heat gain and ultraviolet irradiance in two mammals,” J. Comp. Physiol. B 158(2), 213–221 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

K. Stephan, A. Laesecke, “The thermal conductivity of fluid air,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14(1), 227–234 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. D. Stahel, S. C. Nicol, “Temperature regulation in the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, in air and water,” J. Comp. Physiol. 148, 93–100 (1982).

1980 (1)

C. Skowron, M. Kern, “The insulation in nests of selected North-American songbirds,” Auk 97(4), 816–824 (1980).

1967 (1)

C. F. Herreid, B. Kessel, “Thermal conductance in birds and mammals,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 21(2), 405–414 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1957 (1)

P. R. Morrison, W. J. Tietz, “Cooling and thermal conductivity in three small Alaskan mammals,” J. Mammal. 38(1), 78–86 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

P. F. Scholander, R. Hock, V. Walters, L. Irving, “Adaptation to cold in artic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation and basal metabolic rate,” Biol. Bull. 99(2), 259–271 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abney, M.

H. E. M. Liwanag, A. Berta, D. P. Costa, M. Abney, T. M. Williams, “Morphological and thermal properties of mammalian insulation: the evolution of fur for aquatic living,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 106, 926–939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bakken, G. S.

G. S. Bakken, “Wind speed dependence of the overall thermal conductance of fur and feather insulation,” J. Therm. Biol. 16(2), 121–126 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bersanelli, M.

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berta, A.

H. E. M. Liwanag, A. Berta, D. P. Costa, M. Abney, T. M. Williams, “Morphological and thermal properties of mammalian insulation: the evolution of fur for aquatic living,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 106, 926–939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Birkebak, R. C.

L. B. Davis, R. C. Birkebak, “Convective energy transfer in fur,” in Perspectives in Biophysical Ecology, Vol. 12 of Ecological Studies (Springer, 1975), pp. 525–548.
[CrossRef]

Burger, R. E.

R. G. Somes, R. E. Burger, “Inheritance of the white and pied plumage color patterns in the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus),” J. Hered 84(1), 57–62 (1993).

Burigana, C.

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Butler, R.

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Costa, D. P.

H. E. M. Liwanag, A. Berta, D. P. Costa, M. Abney, T. M. Williams, “Morphological and thermal properties of mammalian insulation: the evolution of fur for aquatic living,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 106, 926–939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L. B.

L. B. Davis, R. C. Birkebak, “Convective energy transfer in fur,” in Perspectives in Biophysical Ecology, Vol. 12 of Ecological Studies (Springer, 1975), pp. 525–548.
[CrossRef]

Dawson, C.

C. Dawson, J. F. V. Vincent, G. Jeronimidis, G. Rice, P. Forshaw, “Heat transfer through penguin feathers,” J. Theor. Biol. 199, 291–295 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doran, S. M.

T. I. Ward, S. M. Doran, “The thermal performance of multi-foil insulation,” U. K. Government Building Regulation Report, (2005).

Forshaw, P.

C. Dawson, J. F. V. Vincent, G. Jeronimidis, G. Rice, P. Forshaw, “Heat transfer through penguin feathers,” J. Theor. Biol. 199, 291–295 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, R.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidi, A.

U. Sivert, A. Heidi, “Thermal insulation performance of reflective material layers in well insulated timber frame structures,” in Proceedings of 8th Symp. Building Physics in the Nordic Countries1, 1–8 (2008).

Herreid, C. F.

C. F. Herreid, B. Kessel, “Thermal conductance in birds and mammals,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 21(2), 405–414 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hock, R.

P. F. Scholander, R. Hock, V. Walters, L. Irving, “Adaptation to cold in artic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation and basal metabolic rate,” Biol. Bull. 99(2), 259–271 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irving, L.

P. F. Scholander, R. Hock, V. Walters, L. Irving, “Adaptation to cold in artic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation and basal metabolic rate,” Biol. Bull. 99(2), 259–271 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeronimidis, G.

C. Dawson, J. F. V. Vincent, G. Jeronimidis, G. Rice, P. Forshaw, “Heat transfer through penguin feathers,” J. Theor. Biol. 199, 291–295 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kern, M.

C. Skowron, M. Kern, “The insulation in nests of selected North-American songbirds,” Auk 97(4), 816–824 (1980).

Kessel, B.

C. F. Herreid, B. Kessel, “Thermal conductance in birds and mammals,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 21(2), 405–414 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinoshita, S.

S. Yoshioka, S. Kinoshita, “Effect of macroscopic structure in iridescent color of the peacock feathers,” Forma 17, 169–181 (2002).

Kirchner, H. O. K.

I. M. Weiss, H. O. K. Kirchner, “The peacock’s train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) I. Structure, mechanics, and chemistry of the tail feather,” J. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol. 313, 690–703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laesecke, A.

K. Stephan, A. Laesecke, “The thermal conductivity of fluid air,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14(1), 227–234 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Langendijk, A.

A. Langendijk, B. van Tiggelen, D. S. Wiersma, “Fifty years of Anderson localization,” Phys. Today 62(8), 24–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lightman, A. P.

G. Rybicki, A. P. Lightman, Radiative Processes in Astrophysics, (Wiley-Interscience, 1979).

Liu, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liwanag, H. E. M.

H. E. M. Liwanag, A. Berta, D. P. Costa, M. Abney, T. M. Williams, “Morphological and thermal properties of mammalian insulation: the evolution of fur for aquatic living,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 106, 926–939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. R.

R. J. G. Savage, M. R. Long, Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide (Facts On File Inc., 1986).

Mandolesi, N.

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McLoughlin, J. C.

J. C. McLoughlin, Synapsida: A New Look into the Origin of Mammals (Viking, 1980).

Mennella, A.

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morgante, G.

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, P. R.

P. R. Morrison, W. J. Tietz, “Cooling and thermal conductivity in three small Alaskan mammals,” J. Mammal. 38(1), 78–86 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Nicol, S. C.

C. D. Stahel, S. C. Nicol, “Temperature regulation in the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, in air and water,” J. Comp. Physiol. 148, 93–100 (1982).

Rice, G.

C. Dawson, J. F. V. Vincent, G. Jeronimidis, G. Rice, P. Forshaw, “Heat transfer through penguin feathers,” J. Theor. Biol. 199, 291–295 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rybicki, G.

G. Rybicki, A. P. Lightman, Radiative Processes in Astrophysics, (Wiley-Interscience, 1979).

Sandri, M.

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Savage, R. J. G.

R. J. G. Savage, M. R. Long, Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide (Facts On File Inc., 1986).

Scholander, P. F.

P. F. Scholander, R. Hock, V. Walters, L. Irving, “Adaptation to cold in artic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation and basal metabolic rate,” Biol. Bull. 99(2), 259–271 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivert, U.

U. Sivert, A. Heidi, “Thermal insulation performance of reflective material layers in well insulated timber frame structures,” in Proceedings of 8th Symp. Building Physics in the Nordic Countries1, 1–8 (2008).

Skowron, C.

C. Skowron, M. Kern, “The insulation in nests of selected North-American songbirds,” Auk 97(4), 816–824 (1980).

Somes, R. G.

R. G. Somes, R. E. Burger, “Inheritance of the white and pied plumage color patterns in the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus),” J. Hered 84(1), 57–62 (1993).

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, Photonic Band Gaps and Localization Nato ASI series B 308(Plenum, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Soulen, R.

R. Soulen, “James Dewar, his flask and other achievements,” Phys. Today 49(3), 32–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stahel, C. D.

C. D. Stahel, S. C. Nicol, “Temperature regulation in the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, in air and water,” J. Comp. Physiol. 148, 93–100 (1982).

Stephan, K.

K. Stephan, A. Laesecke, “The thermal conductivity of fluid air,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14(1), 227–234 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Teerink, B.J.

B.J. Teerink, Hair of West-European Mammals (Cambridge University, 1991).

Terenzi, L.

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tietz, W. J.

P. R. Morrison, W. J. Tietz, “Cooling and thermal conductivity in three small Alaskan mammals,” J. Mammal. 38(1), 78–86 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Valenziano, L.

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Tiggelen, B.

A. Langendijk, B. van Tiggelen, D. S. Wiersma, “Fifty years of Anderson localization,” Phys. Today 62(8), 24–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Villa, F.

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, J. F. V.

C. Dawson, J. F. V. Vincent, G. Jeronimidis, G. Rice, P. Forshaw, “Heat transfer through penguin feathers,” J. Theor. Biol. 199, 291–295 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsberg, G. E.

G. E. Walsberg, “The significance of fur structure for solar heat gain in the rock squirrel, Spermophilus variegatus,” J. Exp. Biol. 138, 243–257 (1988).
[PubMed]

G. E. Walsberg, “Consequences of skin color and fur properties for solar heat gain and ultraviolet irradiance in two mammals,” J. Comp. Physiol. B 158(2), 213–221 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walters, V.

P. F. Scholander, R. Hock, V. Walters, L. Irving, “Adaptation to cold in artic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation and basal metabolic rate,” Biol. Bull. 99(2), 259–271 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, T. I.

T. I. Ward, S. M. Doran, “The thermal performance of multi-foil insulation,” U. K. Government Building Regulation Report, (2005).

Weiss, I. M.

I. M. Weiss, H. O. K. Kirchner, “The peacock’s train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) I. Structure, mechanics, and chemistry of the tail feather,” J. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol. 313, 690–703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiersma, D. S.

A. Langendijk, B. van Tiggelen, D. S. Wiersma, “Fifty years of Anderson localization,” Phys. Today 62(8), 24–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Williams, T. M.

H. E. M. Liwanag, A. Berta, D. P. Costa, M. Abney, T. M. Williams, “Morphological and thermal properties of mammalian insulation: the evolution of fur for aquatic living,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 106, 926–939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshioka, S.

S. Yoshioka, S. Kinoshita, “Effect of macroscopic structure in iridescent color of the peacock feathers,” Forma 17, 169–181 (2002).

Yu, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zi, J.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auk (1)

C. Skowron, M. Kern, “The insulation in nests of selected North-American songbirds,” Auk 97(4), 816–824 (1980).

Biol. Bull. (1)

P. F. Scholander, R. Hock, V. Walters, L. Irving, “Adaptation to cold in artic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation and basal metabolic rate,” Biol. Bull. 99(2), 259–271 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biol. J. Linn. Soc. (1)

H. E. M. Liwanag, A. Berta, D. P. Costa, M. Abney, T. M. Williams, “Morphological and thermal properties of mammalian insulation: the evolution of fur for aquatic living,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 106, 926–939 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Comp. Biochem. Physiol. (1)

C. F. Herreid, B. Kessel, “Thermal conductance in birds and mammals,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 21(2), 405–414 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forma (1)

S. Yoshioka, S. Kinoshita, “Effect of macroscopic structure in iridescent color of the peacock feathers,” Forma 17, 169–181 (2002).

J. Comp. Physiol. (1)

C. D. Stahel, S. C. Nicol, “Temperature regulation in the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, in air and water,” J. Comp. Physiol. 148, 93–100 (1982).

J. Comp. Physiol. B (1)

G. E. Walsberg, “Consequences of skin color and fur properties for solar heat gain and ultraviolet irradiance in two mammals,” J. Comp. Physiol. B 158(2), 213–221 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Biol. (1)

G. E. Walsberg, “The significance of fur structure for solar heat gain in the rock squirrel, Spermophilus variegatus,” J. Exp. Biol. 138, 243–257 (1988).
[PubMed]

J. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol. (1)

I. M. Weiss, H. O. K. Kirchner, “The peacock’s train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) I. Structure, mechanics, and chemistry of the tail feather,” J. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol. 313, 690–703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hered (1)

R. G. Somes, R. E. Burger, “Inheritance of the white and pied plumage color patterns in the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus),” J. Hered 84(1), 57–62 (1993).

J. Mammal. (1)

P. R. Morrison, W. J. Tietz, “Cooling and thermal conductivity in three small Alaskan mammals,” J. Mammal. 38(1), 78–86 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

K. Stephan, A. Laesecke, “The thermal conductivity of fluid air,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14(1), 227–234 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Theor. Biol. (1)

C. Dawson, J. F. V. Vincent, G. Jeronimidis, G. Rice, P. Forshaw, “Heat transfer through penguin feathers,” J. Theor. Biol. 199, 291–295 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Therm. Biol. (1)

G. S. Bakken, “Wind speed dependence of the overall thermal conductance of fur and feather insulation,” J. Therm. Biol. 16(2), 121–126 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (2)

R. Soulen, “James Dewar, his flask and other achievements,” Phys. Today 49(3), 32–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Langendijk, B. van Tiggelen, D. S. Wiersma, “Fifty years of Anderson localization,” Phys. Today 62(8), 24–29 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, C. Burigana, R. Butler, N. Mandolesi, A. Mennella, G. Morgante, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, “The Planck telescope,” in AIP Conference Proceedings616, 224–228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Sivert, A. Heidi, “Thermal insulation performance of reflective material layers in well insulated timber frame structures,” in Proceedings of 8th Symp. Building Physics in the Nordic Countries1, 1–8 (2008).

T. I. Ward, S. M. Doran, “The thermal performance of multi-foil insulation,” U. K. Government Building Regulation Report, (2005).

J. C. McLoughlin, Synapsida: A New Look into the Origin of Mammals (Viking, 1980).

R. J. G. Savage, M. R. Long, Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide (Facts On File Inc., 1986).

B.J. Teerink, Hair of West-European Mammals (Cambridge University, 1991).

C. M. Soukoulis, Photonic Band Gaps and Localization Nato ASI series B 308(Plenum, 1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Rybicki, A. P. Lightman, Radiative Processes in Astrophysics, (Wiley-Interscience, 1979).

L. B. Davis, R. C. Birkebak, “Convective energy transfer in fur,” in Perspectives in Biophysical Ecology, Vol. 12 of Ecological Studies (Springer, 1975), pp. 525–548.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Warm-blooded animals like mammals and birds have hairs or feathers which serve multiple functions. One of them is camouflage, when the coloration or pattern of coloration matches the background to make the animal less conspicuous. However, a more ancient function must have been thermal insulation. A good example is the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), where the thick white hair clearly needs to serve these functions. Alan D. Wilson, Polar Bear (Sow), Kaktovik, Barter Island, Alaska, with permission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) A simple model for the “radiative insulator” described in section 3. A hot black body thermostat at temperature Ta faces a cold black body thermostat at temperature Tb. The exchange of energy between these thermostats is only radiative. The insulator is a set of n black or grey sheets interposed between the thermostats. b) Energy exchanges between two neighboring sheets, say sheets i and i + 1, are denoted I i + and I i + 1 , for energy travelling to sheet i + 1 and to sheet i, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Distribution of the equilibrium temperatures of 100 black-body sheets, shielding thermostats at 37°C and −40°C. b) Base 10 logarithm of the energy attenuation factor as a function of the number of black-body shielding sheets, for thermostats at 37°C and −40°C. Only radiative energy exchanges are included in the model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Distribution of the equilibrium temperatures of 100 grey-body sheets with increasing reflectances: r = 0.0 (black-body result, in blue), 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.99 (magenta), shielding thermostats at 37°C and −40°C. b) Base 10 logarithm of the energy attenuation factor as a function of the number of grey-body shielding sheets, for thermostats at 37°C and −40°C. The shields are assumed opaque to far infrared radiation (t = 0). The upper curve is the black-body shields result and simply repeats the results shown in Fig. 3. The lower ones, from top down, correspond to increasing reflectances: r = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.99.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) External shape of blue peacock Pavo cristatus feather’s barbules. b) External shape of white peacock Pavo cristatus mut. alba feather’s barbules. The segments, visible on most birds, are here terminated by long appendages, which add the capacity to diffuse light and thermal radiation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Feather’s barb from the train of a white peacock. a) scanning electron microscopy cross-section. The barbs, by contrast to the uniformly solid barbules, are structured by large polyhedral cells. b) Optical microscope view. The white coloration is identified coming from the barb polyhedral cells. Barbules are seen as transparent with diffusing white at their appendages.

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d W d t = ( K S L ) ( T a T b ) .
K = { 0.0204 W / mK ( 50 ° C ) 0.0243 W / mK ( 0 ° C ) 0.0257 W / mK ( 20 ° C ) 0.0271 W / mK ( 40 ° C ) 0.0285 W / mK ( 60 ° C )
1 S d W d t 37.4 W / m 2 .
d W d t = σ S ( T a 4 T b 4 ) .
1 S d W d t 356.5 W / m 2 .
R 0 = 1 S d W d t = σ ( T a 4 T b 4 ) .
w i = σ T i 4 .
I i + = I i = w i .
I 0 + = σ T a 4 = w a .
I n + 1 = σ T b 4 = w b .
I i + I i + = I i 1 + + I i + 1 .
I i + I i + 1 = I i 1 + I i ,
w i 1 2 w i + w i + 1 = 0
2 w 1 + w 2 = w a
w n 1 2 w n = w b .
η ( n ) = I i + I i + 1 R 0 = I 0 + I 1 R 0 .
I i + = 1 1 r 2 j = 0 i 1 ( t 1 r 2 ) j w i j + r 1 r 2 j = 1 n i ( t 1 r 2 ) j 1 w i + j + ( t 1 r 2 ) i w a + r ( t 1 r 2 ) n i w b
I i = r 1 r 2 j = 1 i 1 ( t 1 r 2 ) j 1 w i j + 1 1 r 2 j = 0 n i ( t 1 r 2 ) j w i + j + r ( t 1 r 2 ) i 1 w a + r ( t 1 r 2 ) n i + 1 w b .
I 0 + = w a
I 1 = j = 1 n ( t 1 r 2 ) j 1 w j + r w a + t ( t 1 r 2 ) n 1 w b
I n + 1 = w b
I n + = j = 1 n ( t 1 r 2 ) j 1 w n + 1 j + r w b + t ( t 1 r 2 ) n 1 w a .
I 0 + = w a
I n + = w n + r w b
I i + = 1 1 r 2 w i + r 1 r 2 w i + 1
I 1 = w 1 + r w a
I n + 1 = w b
I i = r 1 r 2 w i 1 + 1 1 r 2 w i .

Metrics