Abstract

A stabilization method for signal drifts in terahertz chemical microscopy (TCM) due to unexpected chemical potential changes in sample solutions was proposed and developed. The sensing plate was separated into two areas: a detection area and a control area. The detection area radiated a THz pulse whose amplitude was related to both the chemical reactions in the sample solutions and unexpected potential changes. The THz pulse from the control area was related only to unexpected potential changes. In the proposed system, the THz pulse from each area was interfered and detected. By adjusting the timing of the positive peak of the THz pulse from the detection area and the negative peak of the THz pulse from the control area, we detected the difference in both peaks as the interference signal. Thus, the signal deviation of 390 when the environmental condition changes in the temperature range of 38 °C and the pH range of 8.33 was stabilized to be the signal deviation of 31. As the result, the TCM with stabilization method could detect the signal shift of 121 when the 275-nmol/L immunoglobulin G was immobilized on the sensing plate.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. F. Keren, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A antibodies to Shigella Flexneri antigens,” Infect. Immun. 24(2), 441–448 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  2. D. F. Keren, “Parameters affecting an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Igg and Iga antibodies to Shigella-Flexneri antigens,” Fed. Proc. 38, 941 (1979).
  3. B. Johnsson, S. Löfås, G. Lindquist, “Immobilization of proteins to a Carboxymethyldextran-modified gold surface for biospecific interaction analysis in surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Anal. Biochem. 198(2), 268–277 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  5. S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, “Bioanalysis with Surface-Plasmon Resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 5(1-4), 79–84 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, M. Oikawa, C. Otani, K. Kawase, “Interference terahertz label-free imaging for protein detection on a membrane,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22083–22089 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Yoshida, K. Suizu, E. Kato, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, K. Kawase, “A high-sensitivity terahertz sensing method using a metallic mesh with unique transmission properties,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256(1), 146–151 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Kiwa, K. Tsukada, M. Suzuki, M. Tonouchi, S. Migitaka, K. Yokosawa, “Laser terahertz emission system to investigate hydrogen gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 261102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Kiwa, S. Oka, J. Kondo, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “A terahertz chemical microscope to visualize chemical concentrations in microftuidic chips,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(46), L1052–L1054 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Kiwa, J. Kondo, S. Oka, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Chemical sensing plate with a laser-terahertz monitoring system,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3324–3327 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Kiwa, A. Tenma, S. Takahashi, K. Sakai, K. Tsukada, “Label free immune assay using terahertz chemical microscope,” Sens. Actuators B 187, 8–11 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

T. Kiwa, A. Tenma, S. Takahashi, K. Sakai, K. Tsukada, “Label free immune assay using terahertz chemical microscope,” Sens. Actuators B 187, 8–11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Yoshida, K. Suizu, E. Kato, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, K. Kawase, “A high-sensitivity terahertz sensing method using a metallic mesh with unique transmission properties,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256(1), 146–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, S. Oka, J. Kondo, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “A terahertz chemical microscope to visualize chemical concentrations in microftuidic chips,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(46), L1052–L1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Kiwa, K. Tsukada, M. Suzuki, M. Tonouchi, S. Migitaka, K. Yokosawa, “Laser terahertz emission system to investigate hydrogen gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 261102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1991 (3)

B. Johnsson, S. Löfås, G. Lindquist, “Immobilization of proteins to a Carboxymethyldextran-modified gold surface for biospecific interaction analysis in surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Anal. Biochem. 198(2), 268–277 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, “Bioanalysis with Surface-Plasmon Resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 5(1-4), 79–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

D. F. Keren, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A antibodies to Shigella Flexneri antigens,” Infect. Immun. 24(2), 441–448 (1979).
[PubMed]

D. F. Keren, “Parameters affecting an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Igg and Iga antibodies to Shigella-Flexneri antigens,” Fed. Proc. 38, 941 (1979).

Fägerstam, L.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Hayashi, A.

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, M. Oikawa, C. Otani, K. Kawase, “Interference terahertz label-free imaging for protein detection on a membrane,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22083–22089 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Ivarsson, B.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Johnsson, B.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

B. Johnsson, S. Löfås, G. Lindquist, “Immobilization of proteins to a Carboxymethyldextran-modified gold surface for biospecific interaction analysis in surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Anal. Biochem. 198(2), 268–277 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jönsson, U.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Karlsson, R.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Kato, E.

S. Yoshida, K. Suizu, E. Kato, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, K. Kawase, “A high-sensitivity terahertz sensing method using a metallic mesh with unique transmission properties,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256(1), 146–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, Y.

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

S. Yoshida, K. Suizu, E. Kato, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, K. Kawase, “A high-sensitivity terahertz sensing method using a metallic mesh with unique transmission properties,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256(1), 146–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, M. Oikawa, C. Otani, K. Kawase, “Interference terahertz label-free imaging for protein detection on a membrane,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22083–22089 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawayama, I.

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, J. Kondo, S. Oka, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Chemical sensing plate with a laser-terahertz monitoring system,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3324–3327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kiwa, S. Oka, J. Kondo, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “A terahertz chemical microscope to visualize chemical concentrations in microftuidic chips,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(46), L1052–L1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keren, D. F.

D. F. Keren, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A antibodies to Shigella Flexneri antigens,” Infect. Immun. 24(2), 441–448 (1979).
[PubMed]

D. F. Keren, “Parameters affecting an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Igg and Iga antibodies to Shigella-Flexneri antigens,” Fed. Proc. 38, 941 (1979).

Kiwa, T.

T. Kiwa, A. Tenma, S. Takahashi, K. Sakai, K. Tsukada, “Label free immune assay using terahertz chemical microscope,” Sens. Actuators B 187, 8–11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, J. Kondo, S. Oka, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Chemical sensing plate with a laser-terahertz monitoring system,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3324–3327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kiwa, S. Oka, J. Kondo, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “A terahertz chemical microscope to visualize chemical concentrations in microftuidic chips,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(46), L1052–L1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, K. Tsukada, M. Suzuki, M. Tonouchi, S. Migitaka, K. Yokosawa, “Laser terahertz emission system to investigate hydrogen gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 261102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, J.

T. Kiwa, J. Kondo, S. Oka, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Chemical sensing plate with a laser-terahertz monitoring system,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3324–3327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kiwa, S. Oka, J. Kondo, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “A terahertz chemical microscope to visualize chemical concentrations in microftuidic chips,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(46), L1052–L1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, “Bioanalysis with Surface-Plasmon Resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 5(1-4), 79–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, G.

B. Johnsson, S. Löfås, G. Lindquist, “Immobilization of proteins to a Carboxymethyldextran-modified gold surface for biospecific interaction analysis in surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Anal. Biochem. 198(2), 268–277 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löfås, S.

B. Johnsson, S. Löfås, G. Lindquist, “Immobilization of proteins to a Carboxymethyldextran-modified gold surface for biospecific interaction analysis in surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Anal. Biochem. 198(2), 268–277 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, “Bioanalysis with Surface-Plasmon Resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 5(1-4), 79–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lundh, K.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Lundstrom, I.

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, “Bioanalysis with Surface-Plasmon Resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 5(1-4), 79–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Malmqvist, M.

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, “Bioanalysis with Surface-Plasmon Resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 5(1-4), 79–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Migitaka, S.

T. Kiwa, K. Tsukada, M. Suzuki, M. Tonouchi, S. Migitaka, K. Yokosawa, “Laser terahertz emission system to investigate hydrogen gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 261102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minami, Y.

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakagomi, Y.

S. Yoshida, K. Suizu, E. Kato, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, K. Kawase, “A high-sensitivity terahertz sensing method using a metallic mesh with unique transmission properties,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256(1), 146–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

S. Yoshida, K. Suizu, E. Kato, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, K. Kawase, “A high-sensitivity terahertz sensing method using a metallic mesh with unique transmission properties,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256(1), 146–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, M. Oikawa, C. Otani, K. Kawase, “Interference terahertz label-free imaging for protein detection on a membrane,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22083–22089 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oikawa, M.

Oka, S.

T. Kiwa, J. Kondo, S. Oka, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Chemical sensing plate with a laser-terahertz monitoring system,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3324–3327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kiwa, S. Oka, J. Kondo, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “A terahertz chemical microscope to visualize chemical concentrations in microftuidic chips,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(46), L1052–L1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ostlin, H.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Otani, C.

Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, M. Oikawa, C. Otani, K. Kawase, “Interference terahertz label-free imaging for protein detection on a membrane,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22083–22089 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Persson, B.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Ronnberg, I.

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, “Bioanalysis with Surface-Plasmon Resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 5(1-4), 79–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rönnberg, I.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Roos, H.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Sakai, K.

T. Kiwa, A. Tenma, S. Takahashi, K. Sakai, K. Tsukada, “Label free immune assay using terahertz chemical microscope,” Sens. Actuators B 187, 8–11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sjolander, S.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Stahlberg, R.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Stenberg, E.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, “Bioanalysis with Surface-Plasmon Resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 5(1-4), 79–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suizu, K.

S. Yoshida, K. Suizu, E. Kato, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, K. Kawase, “A high-sensitivity terahertz sensing method using a metallic mesh with unique transmission properties,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256(1), 146–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

T. Kiwa, K. Tsukada, M. Suzuki, M. Tonouchi, S. Migitaka, K. Yokosawa, “Laser terahertz emission system to investigate hydrogen gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 261102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

T. Kiwa, A. Tenma, S. Takahashi, K. Sakai, K. Tsukada, “Label free immune assay using terahertz chemical microscope,” Sens. Actuators B 187, 8–11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tenma, A.

T. Kiwa, A. Tenma, S. Takahashi, K. Sakai, K. Tsukada, “Label free immune assay using terahertz chemical microscope,” Sens. Actuators B 187, 8–11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, J. Kondo, S. Oka, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Chemical sensing plate with a laser-terahertz monitoring system,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3324–3327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, S. Oka, J. Kondo, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “A terahertz chemical microscope to visualize chemical concentrations in microftuidic chips,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(46), L1052–L1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, K. Tsukada, M. Suzuki, M. Tonouchi, S. Migitaka, K. Yokosawa, “Laser terahertz emission system to investigate hydrogen gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 261102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsukada, K.

T. Kiwa, A. Tenma, S. Takahashi, K. Sakai, K. Tsukada, “Label free immune assay using terahertz chemical microscope,” Sens. Actuators B 187, 8–11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, J. Kondo, S. Oka, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Chemical sensing plate with a laser-terahertz monitoring system,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3324–3327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kiwa, S. Oka, J. Kondo, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “A terahertz chemical microscope to visualize chemical concentrations in microftuidic chips,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(46), L1052–L1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, K. Tsukada, M. Suzuki, M. Tonouchi, S. Migitaka, K. Yokosawa, “Laser terahertz emission system to investigate hydrogen gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 261102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Urbaniczky, C.

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

Yamada, H.

T. Kiwa, J. Kondo, S. Oka, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Chemical sensing plate with a laser-terahertz monitoring system,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3324–3327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kiwa, S. Oka, J. Kondo, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “A terahertz chemical microscope to visualize chemical concentrations in microftuidic chips,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(46), L1052–L1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yokosawa, K.

T. Kiwa, K. Tsukada, M. Suzuki, M. Tonouchi, S. Migitaka, K. Yokosawa, “Laser terahertz emission system to investigate hydrogen gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 261102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, S.

S. Yoshida, K. Suizu, E. Kato, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, K. Kawase, “A high-sensitivity terahertz sensing method using a metallic mesh with unique transmission properties,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256(1), 146–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

B. Johnsson, S. Löfås, G. Lindquist, “Immobilization of proteins to a Carboxymethyldextran-modified gold surface for biospecific interaction analysis in surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Anal. Biochem. 198(2), 268–277 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Yoshida, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawai, S. Hayashi, A. Hayashi, C. Otani, E. Kato, F. Miyamaru, K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing method for protein detection using a thin metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, Y. Kondo, Y. Minami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “Terahertz chemical microscope for label-free detection of protein complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kiwa, K. Tsukada, M. Suzuki, M. Tonouchi, S. Migitaka, K. Yokosawa, “Laser terahertz emission system to investigate hydrogen gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 261102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biotechniques (1)

U. Jönsson, L. Fägerstam, B. Ivarsson, B. Johnsson, R. Karlsson, K. Lundh, S. Löfås, B. Persson, H. Roos, I. Rönnberg, S. Sjolander, E. Stenberg, R. Stahlberg, C. Urbaniczky, H. Ostlin, M. Malmqvist, “Real-time biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance and a sensor chip technology,” Biotechniques 11(5), 620–627 (1991).
[PubMed]

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Infect. Immun. (1)

D. F. Keren, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A antibodies to Shigella Flexneri antigens,” Infect. Immun. 24(2), 441–448 (1979).
[PubMed]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

S. Yoshida, K. Suizu, E. Kato, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, K. Kawase, “A high-sensitivity terahertz sensing method using a metallic mesh with unique transmission properties,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256(1), 146–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Kiwa, S. Oka, J. Kondo, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, K. Tsukada, “A terahertz chemical microscope to visualize chemical concentrations in microftuidic chips,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(46), L1052–L1054 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Sens. Actuators B (1)

T. Kiwa, A. Tenma, S. Takahashi, K. Sakai, K. Tsukada, “Label free immune assay using terahertz chemical microscope,” Sens. Actuators B 187, 8–11 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

S. Löfås, M. Malmqvist, I. Ronnberg, E. Stenberg, B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, “Bioanalysis with Surface-Plasmon Resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 5(1-4), 79–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Signal drift when the pH of the sample solutions was changed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The schematic of optical setup for the TCM with a noise stabilization and a photograph of a laser path doubler unit (inset).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-domain waveform of THz pulses from the sensing plate. The blue and red lines show the time-domain waveforms radiated from the detection area and the control area, respectively. The black line shows the time-domain waveform detected by the photoconductive antenna after the two THz pulses interfered with each other.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The THz amplitudes changes when (a) the temperature of the heater mounted on the sensing plate and (b) the pH of the sample solutions were changed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The THz amplitude when the temperature of the heater was changed. The red and black curves represent the amplitude before and after the stabilization, respectively. The 275-nmol/L-IgG was immobilized at where the time is around 12 min.

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