Abstract

GeSn (Sn content up to 4.2%) photodiodes with vertical pin structures were grown on thin Ge virtual substrates on Si by a low temperature (160 °C) molecular beam epitaxy. Vertical detectors were fabricated by a double mesa process with mesa radii between 5 µm and 80 µm. The nominal intrinsic absorber contains carrier densities from below 1·1016 cm−3 to 1·1017 cm−3 for Ge reference detectors and GeSn detectors with 4.2% Sn, respectively. The photodetectors were investigated with electrical and optoelectrical methods from direct current up to high frequencies (40 GHz). For a laser wavelength of 1550 nm an increasing of the optical responsivities (84 mA/W −218 mA/W) for vertical incidence detectors with thin (300 nm) absorbers as function of the Sn content were found. Most important from an application perspective all detectors had bandwidth above 40 GHz at enough reverse voltage which increased from zero to −5 V within the given Sn range. Increasing carrier densities (up to 1·1017 cm−3) with Sn contents caused the depletion of the nominal intrinsic absorber at increasing reverse voltages.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: A novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: A review of recent literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, “Prospects and challenges of silicon/germanium on-chip optoelectronics,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(2), 143–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1-xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DA10 (2010).

2009 (1)

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, “Can silicon change photonics?” Phys. Status Solidi 205(2), 213–224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alberi, K.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arguirov, T.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Avci, U. E.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bahouchi, B.

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beeler, R.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: A novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bell, L. D.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

Blacksberg, J.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buca, D.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cao, Q.

Cea, S.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dubon, O. D.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gassenq, A.

Gencarelli, F.

Gollhofer, M.

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Hu, W.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, “Can silicon change photonics?” Phys. Status Solidi 205(2), 213–224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jutzi, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaschel, M.

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Kasper, E.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, “Prospects and challenges of silicon/germanium on-chip optoelectronics,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(2), 143–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, F. Oliveira, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Epitaxial growth of strained and unstrained GeSn alloys up to 25% Sn,” Thin Solid Films (2013), doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.10.064 .

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Kimerling, L. C.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirfel, O.

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kittler, M.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Klinger, S.

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Körner, R.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Kostecki, K.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, F. Oliveira, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Epitaxial growth of strained and unstrained GeSn alloys up to 25% Sn,” Thin Solid Films (2013), doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.10.064 .

Kotlyar, R.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kouvetakis, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: A novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, K. J.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. Wang, S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linton, T. D.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loo, R.

Mathews, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: A novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Menéndez, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: A novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mussler, G.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Nakatsuka, O.

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1-xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DA10 (2010).

Narcy, G.

Nikzad, S.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oehme, M.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, F. Oliveira, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Epitaxial growth of strained and unstrained GeSn alloys up to 25% Sn,” Thin Solid Films (2013), doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.10.064 .

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Oliveira, F.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, F. Oliveira, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Epitaxial growth of strained and unstrained GeSn alloys up to 25% Sn,” Thin Solid Films (2013), doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.10.064 .

Patel, N.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rios, R.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Romagnoli, M.

Roucka, R.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: A novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, A.

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1-xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DA10 (2010).

Schirmer, A.

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, F. Oliveira, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Epitaxial growth of strained and unstrained GeSn alloys up to 25% Sn,” Thin Solid Films (2013), doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.10.064 .

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Schulze, J.

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, F. Oliveira, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Epitaxial growth of strained and unstrained GeSn alloys up to 25% Sn,” Thin Solid Films (2013), doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.10.064 .

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Shimura, Y.

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1-xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DA10 (2010).

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: A review of recent literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Su, S.

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1-xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DA10 (2010).

Tolle, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: A novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, N.

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1-xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DA10 (2010).

Van Campenhout, J.

Vincent, B.

Walukiewicz, W.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, W.

Weng, C.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: A novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J.

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Widmann, D.

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xue, C.

Xue, H.

Ye, K.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

Young, I. A.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. M.

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaima, S.

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1-xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DA10 (2010).

Zhang, G.

Zuo, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Front. Optoelectron. China (1)

E. Kasper, “Prospects and challenges of silicon/germanium on-chip optoelectronics,” Front. Optoelectron. China 3(2), 143–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndez, J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: A novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Klinger, M. Berroth, M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes with a 3-dB bandwidth of 49 GHz,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(13), 920–922 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

M. Oehme, M. Kaschel, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, M. Schmid, B. Bahouchi, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium on silicon photodetectors with broad spectral range,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(2), H144–H148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1-xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DA10 (2010).

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Photonics Res. (1)

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. Alberi, J. Blacksberg, L. D. Bell, S. Nikzad, K. M. Yu, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, “Band anticrossing in highly mismatched SnxGe1−x semiconducting alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(7), 073202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

B. Jalali, “Can silicon change photonics?” Phys. Status Solidi 205(2), 213–224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

J. Wang, S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors 11(1), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silicon (1)

R. Soref, “Silicon photonics: A review of recent literature,” Silicon 2(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Franz–Keldysh effect of germanium-on-silicon p–i–n diodes within a wide temperature range,” Thin Solid Films 525, 110–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 4th ed. (John Wiley, 2011).

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3rd ed. (John Wiley, 2007).

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2013).

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, F. Oliveira, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Epitaxial growth of strained and unstrained GeSn alloys up to 25% Sn,” Thin Solid Films (2013), doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.10.064 .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cross section of a GeSn pin photodetector structure under normal incidence (left). The schematic high frequency device structure with GSG contacts is shown in the right picture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

40 GHz Measurement setup for optical RF measurements with VNA and modulator for a wavelength of 1550 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dark current density voltage characteristics of the GeSn photodetectors with different Sn concentrations (left). The optical responsivities of the detectors as function of bias voltage at a wavelength of 1550 nm are shown in the right picture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Smith chart of the RF measurements of sample 3, of deembedding structures and of model calculations with fitted equivalent circuit parameters (left). Doping concentrations as function of the width w of the depletion layers extracted for all investigated samples from C-V measurements (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized frequency response at a wavelength of 1550 nm for all three pin photodetectors at different reverse voltages for photodetectors with a radius of 20 µm (left) and 5 µm (right).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sn content and strain status of the investigated samples [16]

Tables Icon

Table 2 Current density and optical responsivity of the investigated samples

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison 3-dB bandwidths as function the operation point and device radius of the investigated samples

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n( V bias )= 2 q ε 0 ε r d(1/ C 2 ) d V bias
w( V bias )= ε 0 ε r A C

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