Abstract

Tissue optical clearing technique has shown great potential for enhancing the imaging depth and contrast of optical imaging modalities. However, the mechanism of optical clearing is still in controversy. In this manuscript, we combined photoacoustic microscopy with ultrasonography to monitor the dermic changes induced by optical clearing agents at different immersion time points. The measured parameters were correlated with the optical clearing process, and could be used to assess the optical clearing effect. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that photoacoustic microscopy and ultrasonography can potentially be used as a powerful tool in screening optical clearing agents and exploring the mechanism of optical clearing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. L. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. Nogueira, V. V. Tuchin, “Optical measurements of rat muscle samples under treatment with ethylene glycol and glucose,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 6(2), 1350012 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (6)

P. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Y. Guo, J. P. Wang, Z. F. Zhuang, S. H. Liu, “Discrimination of dimethyl sulphoxide diffusion coefficient in the process of optical clearing by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020507 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. Nogueira, V. V. Tuchin, “Optical measurements of rat muscle samples under treatment with ethylene glycol and glucose,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 6(2), 1350012 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. M. Luo, V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photon Rev 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, R. Shi, D. Zhu, “Switchable skin window induced by optical clearing method for dermal blood flow imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Liu, X. Q. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, Q. M. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Menyaev, D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, M. A. Juratli, E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, V. P. Zharov, “Optical clearing in photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 3030–3041 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Zhang, T. H. Xu, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 469–473 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T. T. Yu, X. Wen, V. V. Tuchin, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Quantitative analysis of dehydration in porcine skin for assessing mechanism of optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 095002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

X. Wen, Z. Z. Mao, Z. Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Samatham, K. G. Phillips, S. L. Jacques, “Assessment of optical clearing agents using reflectance-mode confocal scanning laser microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(3), 183–188 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Yang, X. Cai, K. Maslov, L. H. Wang, Q. M. Luo, “High-resolution photoacoustic microscope for rat brain imaging in vivo,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(6), 609–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Zhi, Z. Z. Han, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Improve optical clearing of skin in vitro with propylene glycol as a penetration enhancer,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2(3), 269–278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Z. Z. Mao, D. Zhu, Y. T. Hu, X. Wen, Z. Z. Han, “Influence of alcohols on the optical clearing effect of skin in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(4), 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Yeh, J. Hirshburg, “Molecular interactions of exogenous chemical agents with collagen--implications for tissue optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2000 (2)

E. Szymańska, A. Nowicki, K. Mlosek, J. Litniewski, M. Lewandowski, W. Secomski, R. Tymkiewicz, “Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound - preliminary results,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(1), 9–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Harland, S. G. Kale, P. Jackson, P. S. Mortimer, J. C. Bamber, “Differentiation of common benign pigmented skin lesions from melanoma by high-resolution ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 143(2), 281–289 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

C. C. Harland, J. C. Bamber, B. A. Gusterson, P. S. Mortimer, “High frequency, high resolution B-scan ultrasound in the assessment of skin tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 128(5), 525–532 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. A. Evans, M. B. Tavakoli, “Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity in bone,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(10), 1387–1396 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bamber, J. C.

C. C. Harland, S. G. Kale, P. Jackson, P. S. Mortimer, J. C. Bamber, “Differentiation of common benign pigmented skin lesions from melanoma by high-resolution ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 143(2), 281–289 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Harland, J. C. Bamber, B. A. Gusterson, P. S. Mortimer, “High frequency, high resolution B-scan ultrasound in the assessment of skin tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 128(5), 525–532 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bui, A. K.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, X.

Carvalho, M. I.

L. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. Nogueira, V. V. Tuchin, “Optical measurements of rat muscle samples under treatment with ethylene glycol and glucose,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 6(2), 1350012 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cicchi, R.

Diller, K. R.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. A.

J. A. Evans, M. B. Tavakoli, “Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity in bone,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(10), 1387–1396 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galanzha, E. I.

Guo, Z. Y.

P. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Y. Guo, J. P. Wang, Z. F. Zhuang, S. H. Liu, “Discrimination of dimethyl sulphoxide diffusion coefficient in the process of optical clearing by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020507 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gusterson, B. A.

C. C. Harland, J. C. Bamber, B. A. Gusterson, P. S. Mortimer, “High frequency, high resolution B-scan ultrasound in the assessment of skin tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 128(5), 525–532 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Z. Z.

X. Wen, Z. Z. Mao, Z. Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Zhi, Z. Z. Han, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Improve optical clearing of skin in vitro with propylene glycol as a penetration enhancer,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2(3), 269–278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Z. Mao, D. Zhu, Y. T. Hu, X. Wen, Z. Z. Han, “Influence of alcohols on the optical clearing effect of skin in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harland, C. C.

C. C. Harland, S. G. Kale, P. Jackson, P. S. Mortimer, J. C. Bamber, “Differentiation of common benign pigmented skin lesions from melanoma by high-resolution ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 143(2), 281–289 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Harland, J. C. Bamber, B. A. Gusterson, P. S. Mortimer, “High frequency, high resolution B-scan ultrasound in the assessment of skin tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 128(5), 525–532 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirshburg, J.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Yeh, J. Hirshburg, “Molecular interactions of exogenous chemical agents with collagen--implications for tissue optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Y. T.

Z. Z. Mao, D. Zhu, Y. T. Hu, X. Wen, Z. Z. Han, “Influence of alcohols on the optical clearing effect of skin in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. Y.

P. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Y. Guo, J. P. Wang, Z. F. Zhuang, S. H. Liu, “Discrimination of dimethyl sulphoxide diffusion coefficient in the process of optical clearing by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020507 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, P.

C. C. Harland, S. G. Kale, P. Jackson, P. S. Mortimer, J. C. Bamber, “Differentiation of common benign pigmented skin lesions from melanoma by high-resolution ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 143(2), 281–289 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Samatham, K. G. Phillips, S. L. Jacques, “Assessment of optical clearing agents using reflectance-mode confocal scanning laser microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(3), 183–188 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Juratli, M. A.

Kale, S. G.

C. C. Harland, S. G. Kale, P. Jackson, P. S. Mortimer, J. C. Bamber, “Differentiation of common benign pigmented skin lesions from melanoma by high-resolution ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 143(2), 281–289 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemp, N. J.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khlebtsov, N. G.

Kim, J. W.

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kokoska, M. S.

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kon, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larin, K. V.

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. M. Luo, V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photon Rev 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewandowski, M.

E. Szymańska, A. Nowicki, K. Mlosek, J. Litniewski, M. Lewandowski, W. Secomski, R. Tymkiewicz, “Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound - preliminary results,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(1), 9–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litniewski, J.

E. Szymańska, A. Nowicki, K. Mlosek, J. Litniewski, M. Lewandowski, W. Secomski, R. Tymkiewicz, “Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound - preliminary results,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(1), 9–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, P.

P. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Y. Guo, J. P. Wang, Z. F. Zhuang, S. H. Liu, “Discrimination of dimethyl sulphoxide diffusion coefficient in the process of optical clearing by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020507 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. H.

P. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Y. Guo, J. P. Wang, Z. F. Zhuang, S. H. Liu, “Discrimination of dimethyl sulphoxide diffusion coefficient in the process of optical clearing by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020507 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. Y.

Luo, Q. M.

Y. Y. Liu, X. Q. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, Q. M. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. M. Luo, V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photon Rev 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Zhang, T. H. Xu, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 469–473 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Yu, X. Wen, V. V. Tuchin, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Quantitative analysis of dehydration in porcine skin for assessing mechanism of optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 095002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Yang, X. Cai, K. Maslov, L. H. Wang, Q. M. Luo, “High-resolution photoacoustic microscope for rat brain imaging in vivo,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(6), 609–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Zhi, Z. Z. Han, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Improve optical clearing of skin in vitro with propylene glycol as a penetration enhancer,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2(3), 269–278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maksimova, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, Z. Z.

X. Wen, Z. Z. Mao, Z. Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Z. Mao, D. Zhu, Y. T. Hu, X. Wen, Z. Z. Han, “Influence of alcohols on the optical clearing effect of skin in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

X. Q. Yang, X. Cai, K. Maslov, L. H. Wang, Q. M. Luo, “High-resolution photoacoustic microscope for rat brain imaging in vivo,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(6), 609–611 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(4), 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massi, D.

Mavlyutov, A. H.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McClure, R. A.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendenhall, J. M.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menyaev, Y. A.

Milner, T. E.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishin, A. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlosek, K.

E. Szymańska, A. Nowicki, K. Mlosek, J. Litniewski, M. Lewandowski, W. Secomski, R. Tymkiewicz, “Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound - preliminary results,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(1), 9–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortimer, P. S.

C. C. Harland, S. G. Kale, P. Jackson, P. S. Mortimer, J. C. Bamber, “Differentiation of common benign pigmented skin lesions from melanoma by high-resolution ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 143(2), 281–289 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Harland, J. C. Bamber, B. A. Gusterson, P. S. Mortimer, “High frequency, high resolution B-scan ultrasound in the assessment of skin tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 128(5), 525–532 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nedosekin, D. A.

Nogueira, E.

L. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. Nogueira, V. V. Tuchin, “Optical measurements of rat muscle samples under treatment with ethylene glycol and glucose,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 6(2), 1350012 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nowicki, A.

E. Szymańska, A. Nowicki, K. Mlosek, J. Litniewski, M. Lewandowski, W. Secomski, R. Tymkiewicz, “Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound - preliminary results,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(1), 9–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliveira, L.

L. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. Nogueira, V. V. Tuchin, “Optical measurements of rat muscle samples under treatment with ethylene glycol and glucose,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 6(2), 1350012 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pavone, F.

Phillips, K. G.

R. Samatham, K. G. Phillips, S. L. Jacques, “Assessment of optical clearing agents using reflectance-mode confocal scanning laser microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(3), 183–188 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rylander, C. G.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samatham, R.

R. Samatham, K. G. Phillips, S. L. Jacques, “Assessment of optical clearing agents using reflectance-mode confocal scanning laser microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(3), 183–188 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D.

Sarimollaoglu, M.

Secomski, W.

E. Szymańska, A. Nowicki, K. Mlosek, J. Litniewski, M. Lewandowski, W. Secomski, R. Tymkiewicz, “Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound - preliminary results,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(1), 9–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shashkov, E. V.

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, R.

J. Wang, R. Shi, D. Zhu, “Switchable skin window induced by optical clearing method for dermal blood flow imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Liu, X. Q. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, Q. M. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoianovici, C.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stumpp, O. F.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szymanska, E.

E. Szymańska, A. Nowicki, K. Mlosek, J. Litniewski, M. Lewandowski, W. Secomski, R. Tymkiewicz, “Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound - preliminary results,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(1), 9–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tavakoli, M. B.

J. A. Evans, M. B. Tavakoli, “Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity in bone,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(10), 1387–1396 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

Y. A. Menyaev, D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, M. A. Juratli, E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, V. P. Zharov, “Optical clearing in photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 3030–3041 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. M. Luo, V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photon Rev 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. Nogueira, V. V. Tuchin, “Optical measurements of rat muscle samples under treatment with ethylene glycol and glucose,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 6(2), 1350012 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Yu, X. Wen, V. V. Tuchin, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Quantitative analysis of dehydration in porcine skin for assessing mechanism of optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 095002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Z. Mao, Z. Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2497–2518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tymkiewicz, R.

E. Szymańska, A. Nowicki, K. Mlosek, J. Litniewski, M. Lewandowski, W. Secomski, R. Tymkiewicz, “Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound - preliminary results,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(1), 9–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, R. Shi, D. Zhu, “Switchable skin window induced by optical clearing method for dermal blood flow imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Zhang, T. H. Xu, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 469–473 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. P.

P. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Y. Guo, J. P. Wang, Z. F. Zhuang, S. H. Liu, “Discrimination of dimethyl sulphoxide diffusion coefficient in the process of optical clearing by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020507 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. H.

Wang, L. V.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(4), 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, X.

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Yu, X. Wen, V. V. Tuchin, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Quantitative analysis of dehydration in porcine skin for assessing mechanism of optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 095002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Z. Mao, Z. Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Z. Mao, D. Zhu, Y. T. Hu, X. Wen, Z. Z. Han, “Influence of alcohols on the optical clearing effect of skin in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, T. H.

J. Wang, Y. Zhang, T. H. Xu, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 469–473 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. Q.

Yeh, A. T.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Yeh, J. Hirshburg, “Molecular interactions of exogenous chemical agents with collagen--implications for tissue optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T. T.

T. T. Yu, X. Wen, V. V. Tuchin, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Quantitative analysis of dehydration in porcine skin for assessing mechanism of optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 095002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(4), 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

J. Wang, Y. Zhang, T. H. Xu, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 469–473 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zharov, V. P.

Zhi, Z. W.

Z. W. Zhi, Z. Z. Han, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Improve optical clearing of skin in vitro with propylene glycol as a penetration enhancer,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2(3), 269–278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

Y. Y. Liu, X. Q. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, Q. M. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, R. Shi, D. Zhu, “Switchable skin window induced by optical clearing method for dermal blood flow imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. M. Luo, V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photon Rev 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Zhang, T. H. Xu, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 469–473 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Yu, X. Wen, V. V. Tuchin, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Quantitative analysis of dehydration in porcine skin for assessing mechanism of optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 095002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Z. Mao, Z. Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Zhi, Z. Z. Han, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Improve optical clearing of skin in vitro with propylene glycol as a penetration enhancer,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2(3), 269–278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Z. Mao, D. Zhu, Y. T. Hu, X. Wen, Z. Z. Han, “Influence of alcohols on the optical clearing effect of skin in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Z. F.

P. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Y. Guo, J. P. Wang, Z. F. Zhuang, S. H. Liu, “Discrimination of dimethyl sulphoxide diffusion coefficient in the process of optical clearing by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020507 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimnyakov, D. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Dermatol. (2)

C. C. Harland, S. G. Kale, P. Jackson, P. S. Mortimer, J. C. Bamber, “Differentiation of common benign pigmented skin lesions from melanoma by high-resolution ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 143(2), 281–289 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Harland, J. C. Bamber, B. A. Gusterson, P. S. Mortimer, “High frequency, high resolution B-scan ultrasound in the assessment of skin tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 128(5), 525–532 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Eur. J. Ultrasound (1)

E. Szymańska, A. Nowicki, K. Mlosek, J. Litniewski, M. Lewandowski, W. Secomski, R. Tymkiewicz, “Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound - preliminary results,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(1), 9–16 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biophotonics (2)

X. Wen, Z. Z. Mao, Z. Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

J. Wang, R. Shi, D. Zhu, “Switchable skin window induced by optical clearing method for dermal blood flow imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061209 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Yeh, J. Hirshburg, “Molecular interactions of exogenous chemical agents with collagen--implications for tissue optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Yu, X. Wen, V. V. Tuchin, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Quantitative analysis of dehydration in porcine skin for assessing mechanism of optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 095002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Y. Guo, J. P. Wang, Z. F. Zhuang, S. H. Liu, “Discrimination of dimethyl sulphoxide diffusion coefficient in the process of optical clearing by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020507 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Z. Mao, D. Zhu, Y. T. Hu, X. Wen, Z. Z. Han, “Influence of alcohols on the optical clearing effect of skin in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. (3)

Z. W. Zhi, Z. Z. Han, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Improve optical clearing of skin in vitro with propylene glycol as a penetration enhancer,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2(3), 269–278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. Nogueira, V. V. Tuchin, “Optical measurements of rat muscle samples under treatment with ethylene glycol and glucose,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 6(2), 1350012 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Samatham, K. G. Phillips, S. L. Jacques, “Assessment of optical clearing agents using reflectance-mode confocal scanning laser microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(3), 183–188 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2497–2518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon Rev (1)

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. M. Luo, V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photon Rev 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Wang, Y. Zhang, T. H. Xu, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 469–473 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(4), 797–804 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. A. Evans, M. B. Tavakoli, “Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity in bone,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(10), 1387–1396 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Wan, “Measurement of ultrasonic parameters of biomedical samples,” in Experiments of Biomedical Ultrasound, M. Wan, ed. (Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 2010).

D. J. Zhang, “Fundamentals of ultrasonics,” in Ultrasonics Handbook, R. Feng, ed. (Nanjing University, Nanjing, 1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental apparatus; (b) Diagram of forward photoacoustic detection; (c) Diagram of backward photoacoustic detection. The absorbers were drawn thick to show the ultrasonic pathway. A: absorber, BS: beam splitter, CL: conical lens, DI: dark field illumination, OC: optical condenser, PD: photodiode, UST: ultrasonic transducer, WT: water tank.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement of forward photoacoustic amplitude. (a) Apparatus setup; (b) Changes of forward photoacoustic amplitude with different OCAs (mean ± SEM). BT: black tape, DI: dark field illumination, OF: optical focus, UST: ultrasonic transducer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Changes of ultrasonic reflection at different interfaces (mean ± SEM). (a) Changes of ultrasonic reflection at OCA-skin interface; (b) Changes of ultrasonic reflection at OCA-metal interface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of backward photoacoustic amplitude. (a) Schematic of optical and ultrasonic path. Green arrows show optical path, blue arrows show ultrasonic path. (b) Changes of backward photoacoustic amplitude with different OCAs (mean ± SEM). A: absorption, R: reflection, S: scattering, T: transmittance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement of photoacoustic arrival time. (a) Schematic of the photoacoustic path. (b) Shifting of photoacoustic arrival time. Both OCAs caused negatively shifted arrival time during immersion. UST: ultrasonic transducer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dual-modality images of skin before and after immersed with PEG-400. (a) and (b) are the photoacoustic images before and after immersion, (c) and (d) are the ultrasonic echo images before and after immersion, (e) and (f) are the fusion images before and after immersion. The scale bar is the same for (a) ~(f).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dual-modality images of skin before and after immersed with glycerol. (a) and (b) are the photoacoustic images before and after immersion, (c) and (d) are the ultrasonic echo images before and after immersion, (e) and (f) are the fusion images before and after immersion. The scale bar is the same for (a)~(f).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Acoustic Parameters of the Chemical Reagents

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summation of Key Results

Metrics