Abstract

Raman systems have tremendous potential as adjunct devices for endoscopes to improve the identification of early colon cancers. However, the traditional low frequency (LF) measurement range has several obstacles that make it challenging to develop a routine clinical tool. An alternative is to use high frequency (HF) range. To test this idea Raman spectra were obtained in both the LF and HF ranges from the same colon lesions. Multivariate analyses predicted the pathology with high sensitivity and specificity for both the LF and HF data sets. This suggests that Raman systems that measure HF spectra, and are simpler to adopt into the clinic, could be used in vivo to improve the identification of neoplastic lesions.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (1)

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res.72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

A. Stallmach, C. Schmidt, A. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “An unmet medical need: Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia,” J Biophotonics4(7-8), 482–489 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. M. McWilliams, D. N. Ionescu, and H. Zeng, “Using laser Raman spectroscopy to reduce false positives of autofluorescence bronchoscopies: A pilot study,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(7), 1206–1214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. F. Lam, D. A. Owen, C. Macaulay, I. T. Tai, and H. Zeng, “Development of an endoscopic Raman spectroscopy system for the improving detection of early colonic neoplasias,” Gastrointest. Endosc.73(4), AB371–AB372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

E. P. Whitlock, J. S. Lin, E. Liles, T. L. Beil, and R. Fu, “Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med.149(9), 638–658 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett.33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. Nijssen, K. Marquelin, L. F. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. C. den Hollander, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Robichaux-Viehoever, E. Kanter, H. Shappell, D. Billheimer, H. Jones, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Characterization of Raman spectra measured in vivo for the detection of cervical dysplasia,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(9), 986–993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: Preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem.77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. D. Wang and J. Van Dam, “Optical biopsy: a new frontier in endoscopic detection and diagnosis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.2(9), 744–753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Adler, A.

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, R. M.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem.77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aminalai, A.

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. W.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: Preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aschenbeck, J.

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakker Schut, T. C.

A. Nijssen, K. Marquelin, L. F. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. C. den Hollander, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beil, T. L.

E. P. Whitlock, J. S. Lin, E. Liles, T. L. Beil, and R. Fu, “Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med.149(9), 638–658 (2008).
[PubMed]

Berean, K.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: Preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Billheimer, D.

Caspers, P. J.

A. Nijssen, K. Marquelin, L. F. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. C. den Hollander, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

den Hollander, J. C.

A. Nijssen, K. Marquelin, L. F. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. C. den Hollander, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drossel, R.

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, R.

E. P. Whitlock, J. S. Lin, E. Liles, T. L. Beil, and R. Fu, “Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med.149(9), 638–658 (2008).
[PubMed]

Ho, K. Y.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: Preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ionescu, D. N.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. M. McWilliams, D. N. Ionescu, and H. Zeng, “Using laser Raman spectroscopy to reduce false positives of autofluorescence bronchoscopies: A pilot study,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(7), 1206–1214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, H.

Kanter, E.

Kartha, V. B.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

A. Stallmach, C. Schmidt, A. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “An unmet medical need: Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia,” J Biophotonics4(7-8), 482–489 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koljenovic, S.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem.77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishna, C. M.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurien, J.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. M. McWilliams, D. N. Ionescu, and H. Zeng, “Using laser Raman spectroscopy to reduce false positives of autofluorescence bronchoscopies: A pilot study,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(7), 1206–1214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett.33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S. F.

M. A. Short, S. F. Lam, D. A. Owen, C. Macaulay, I. T. Tai, and H. Zeng, “Development of an endoscopic Raman spectroscopy system for the improving detection of early colonic neoplasias,” Gastrointest. Endosc.73(4), AB371–AB372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lau, D. P.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: Preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liles, E.

E. P. Whitlock, J. S. Lin, E. Liles, T. L. Beil, and R. Fu, “Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med.149(9), 638–658 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lin, J. S.

E. P. Whitlock, J. S. Lin, E. Liles, T. L. Beil, and R. Fu, “Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med.149(9), 638–658 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lui, H.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res.72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett.33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: Preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macaulay, C.

M. A. Short, S. F. Lam, D. A. Owen, C. Macaulay, I. T. Tai, and H. Zeng, “Development of an endoscopic Raman spectroscopy system for the improving detection of early colonic neoplasias,” Gastrointest. Endosc.73(4), AB371–AB372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Malini, R.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcon, N. E.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marple, E. C.

Marquelin, K.

A. Nijssen, K. Marquelin, L. F. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. C. den Hollander, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mayr, M.

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res.72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A.

McWilliams, A. M.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. M. McWilliams, D. N. Ionescu, and H. Zeng, “Using laser Raman spectroscopy to reduce false positives of autofluorescence bronchoscopies: A pilot study,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(7), 1206–1214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molckovsky, A.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morrison, M. D.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: Preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Movasaghi, Z.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, M. H.

A. Nijssen, K. Marquelin, L. F. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. C. den Hollander, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nijssen, A.

A. Nijssen, K. Marquelin, L. F. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. C. den Hollander, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Owen, D. A.

M. A. Short, S. F. Lam, D. A. Owen, C. Macaulay, I. T. Tai, and H. Zeng, “Development of an endoscopic Raman spectroscopy system for the improving detection of early colonic neoplasias,” Gastrointest. Endosc.73(4), AB371–AB372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pai, K. M.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

A. Nijssen, K. Marquelin, L. F. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. C. den Hollander, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem.77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, L.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rehman, I. U.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rehman, S.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robichaux-Viehoever, A.

Rösch, T.

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santos, L. F.

A. Nijssen, K. Marquelin, L. F. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. C. den Hollander, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem.77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheel, M.

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C.

A. Stallmach, C. Schmidt, A. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “An unmet medical need: Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia,” J Biophotonics4(7-8), 482–489 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, A.

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shappell, H.

Shen, L.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: Preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, M. G.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, E. C. Marple, and M. Wach, “Study of fiber optic probes for in vivo medical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.53(6), 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Short, M. A.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. M. McWilliams, D. N. Ionescu, and H. Zeng, “Using laser Raman spectroscopy to reduce false positives of autofluorescence bronchoscopies: A pilot study,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(7), 1206–1214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. F. Lam, D. A. Owen, C. Macaulay, I. T. Tai, and H. Zeng, “Development of an endoscopic Raman spectroscopy system for the improving detection of early colonic neoplasias,” Gastrointest. Endosc.73(4), AB371–AB372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett.33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, L. M.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stallmach, A.

A. Stallmach, C. Schmidt, A. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “An unmet medical need: Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia,” J Biophotonics4(7-8), 482–489 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tai, I. T.

M. A. Short, S. F. Lam, D. A. Owen, C. Macaulay, I. T. Tai, and H. Zeng, “Development of an endoscopic Raman spectroscopy system for the improving detection of early colonic neoplasias,” Gastrointest. Endosc.73(4), AB371–AB372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Teh, M.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teh, S. K.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

T. D. Wang and J. Van Dam, “Optical biopsy: a new frontier in endoscopic detection and diagnosis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.2(9), 744–753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkatakrishna, K.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wach, M.

Wang, T. D.

T. D. Wang and J. Van Dam, “Optical biopsy: a new frontier in endoscopic detection and diagnosis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.2(9), 744–753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, A.

A. Stallmach, C. Schmidt, A. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “An unmet medical need: Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia,” J Biophotonics4(7-8), 482–489 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitlock, E. P.

E. P. Whitlock, J. S. Lin, E. Liles, T. L. Beil, and R. Fu, “Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med.149(9), 638–658 (2008).
[PubMed]

Wiedenmann, B.

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, E. C. Marple, and M. Wach, “Study of fiber optic probes for in vivo medical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.53(6), 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolthuis, R.

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem.77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yenerim, T.

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeoh, K. G.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res.72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. M. McWilliams, D. N. Ionescu, and H. Zeng, “Using laser Raman spectroscopy to reduce false positives of autofluorescence bronchoscopies: A pilot study,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(7), 1206–1214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. F. Lam, D. A. Owen, C. Macaulay, I. T. Tai, and H. Zeng, “Development of an endoscopic Raman spectroscopy system for the improving detection of early colonic neoplasias,” Gastrointest. Endosc.73(4), AB371–AB372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett.33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: Preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zheng, W.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

L. F. Santos, R. Wolthuis, S. Koljenović, R. M. Almeida, and G. J. Puppels, “Fiber-optic probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy in the high-wavenumber region,” Anal. Chem.77(20), 6747–6752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Intern. Med. (1)

E. P. Whitlock, J. S. Lin, E. Liles, T. L. Beil, and R. Fu, “Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” Ann. Intern. Med.149(9), 638–658 (2008).
[PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev.42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biopolymers (1)

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (1)

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res.72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

T. D. Wang and J. Van Dam, “Optical biopsy: a new frontier in endoscopic detection and diagnosis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.2(9), 744–753 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

A. Adler, J. Aschenbeck, T. Yenerim, M. Mayr, A. Aminalai, R. Drossel, A. Schröder, M. Scheel, B. Wiedenmann, and T. Rösch, “Narrow-band versus white-light high definition television endoscopic imaging for screening colonoscopy: a prospective randomized trial,” Gastroenterology136(2), 410–416 quiz 715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

A. Molckovsky, L. M. Song, M. G. Shim, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc.57(3), 396–402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. F. Lam, D. A. Owen, C. Macaulay, I. T. Tai, and H. Zeng, “Development of an endoscopic Raman spectroscopy system for the improving detection of early colonic neoplasias,” Gastrointest. Endosc.73(4), AB371–AB372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J Biophotonics (1)

A. Stallmach, C. Schmidt, A. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “An unmet medical need: Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia,” J Biophotonics4(7-8), 482–489 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Nijssen, K. Marquelin, L. F. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. C. den Hollander, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Thorac. Oncol. (1)

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. M. McWilliams, D. N. Ionescu, and H. Zeng, “Using laser Raman spectroscopy to reduce false positives of autofluorescence bronchoscopies: A pilot study,” J. Thorac. Oncol.6(7), 1206–1214 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: Preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med.37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

H. Zeng, Y. S. Fawzy, M. A. Short, M. Tercelj, A. McWilliams, M. Petek, B. Palcic, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and S. Lam, “Combining field imaging endoscopy with point analysis spectroscopy for improving early lung cancer detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2008), pp.1849–1850.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LF and HF emission spectra taken in vivo from the palm skin of a volunteer. Spectra were obtained with both optically filtered and unfiltered catheters. Figures (a) and (b) are the calibrated emission including autofluorescence, Raman and fiber emission, (c) and (d) are the spectra obtained after removal of the fluorescence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LF emission spectra from excised colon tissue (a) and (c), and biopsied colon tissue (b) and (d). All spectra were obtained using an optically filtered catheter. Figures (a) and (b) are the calibrated emission including autofluorescence, Raman and fiber emission. Figures (c) and (d) are the spectra obtained after removal of the autofluorescence. Error bars are the standard errors on the mean.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

HF emission spectra from excised colon tissue (a) and (c), and biopsied colon tissue (b) and (d). All spectra were obtained using an optically filtered catheter. Figures (a) and (b) are the calibrated emission including autofluorescence, Raman and fiber emission. Figures (c) and (d) are the spectra obtained after removal of the autofluorescence. Error bars are the standard errors on the mean.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peaks ratios calculated from two Raman peaks in both the LF and HF spectral ranges. Figures (a) and (c) are for excised colon tissue in the LF and HF ranges respectively. Figures (b) and (d) are for biopsied colon tissue in the LF and HF ranges respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the multivariate statistical analyses on the LF Raman spectra from excised colon tissue are shown in (a) and (c) and those from biopsied colon tissue are shown in (b) and (d). Figures (a) and (b) are 2D scatter plots of two PCs which are highly correlated with tissue pathology. “A” marks the average position of a group. Figures (c) and (d) are the posterior probability plots derived from validated LDA, and the sensitivity and specificity values shown are for a 0.5 probability cut line (dashed line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of the multivariate statistical analyses on the LF Raman spectra from excised colon tissue are shown in (a) and (c) and those from biopsied colon tissue are shown in (b) and (d). Figures (a) and (b) are 2D scatter plots of two PCs which are highly correlated with tissue pathology. “A” marks the average position of a group. Figures (c) and (d) are the posterior probability plots derived from validated LDA, and the sensitivity and specificity values shown are for a 0.5 probability cut line (dashed line).

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