Abstract

A non-contact localized spectroscopic imaging platform has been developed and optimized to scan 1x1cm2 square regions of surgically resected breast tissue specimens with ~150-micron resolution. A color corrected, image-space telecentric scanning design maintained a consistent sampling geometry and uniform spot size across the entire imaging field. Theoretical modeling in ZEMAX allowed estimation of the spot size, which is equal at both the center and extreme positions of the field with ~5% variation across the designed waveband, indicating excellent color correction. The spot sizes at the center and an extreme field position were also measured experimentally using the standard knife-edge technique and were found to be within ~8% of the theoretical predictions. Highly localized sampling offered inherent insensitivity to variations in background absorption allowing direct imaging of local scattering parameters, which was validated using a matrix of varying concentrations of Intralipid and blood in phantoms. Four representative, pathologically distinct lumpectomy tissue specimens were imaged, capturing natural variations in tissue scattering response within a given pathology. Variations as high as 60% were observed in the average reflectance and relative scattering power images, which must be taken into account for robust classification performance. Despite this variation, the preliminary data indicates discernible scatter power contrast between the benign vs malignant groups, but reliable discrimination of pathologies within these groups would require investigation into additional contrast mechanisms.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (2)

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. Raj, H. S. McGuff, G. Bhave, B. Yang, T. Shen, and X. Zhang, “Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(6), 065001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. Bini, J. Spain, K. Nehal, V. Hazelwood, C. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Krishnaswamy, A. M. Laughney, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Dark-field scanning in situ spectroscopy platform for broadband imaging of resected tissue,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1911–1913 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res.9(13), 4714–4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med.17(4), 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1971 (1)

Alizadeh-Naderi, R.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res.9(13), 4714–4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Andersson, C.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreola, S.

Arnaud, J. A.

Austwick, M. R.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barman, I.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry,

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, W.

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, W. T.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertoni, A.

Bhave, G.

Y. Wang, M. Raj, H. S. McGuff, G. Bhave, B. Yang, T. Shen, and X. Zhang, “Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(6), 065001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bigio, I.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med.17(4), 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bing Yu, S. A.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bini, J.

J. Bini, J. Spain, K. Nehal, V. Hazelwood, C. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, J.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med.17(4), 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. Q.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, G. C.

Bydlon, T.

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bydlon, T. M.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calabro, K. W.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chicken, D. W.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cipolloni, P. B.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, A. L.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res.9(13), 4714–4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Clark, B.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, T. G.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res.9(13), 4714–4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Conn, R. L.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med.17(4), 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de la Clavière, B.

Dehghani, H.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMarzio, C.

J. Bini, J. Spain, K. Nehal, V. Hazelwood, C. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dingari, N. C.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eastman, Z.

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A. K.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res.9(13), 4714–4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Falzon, M.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fearn, T.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke, E. A.

Franke, J. M.

Freedman, S. D.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, J.

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, W. T.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gareau, D. S.

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geradts, J.

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geradts, L. G.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghiran, I. C.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, J. J.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res.9(13), 4714–4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Hanlon, E. B.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazelwood, V.

J. Bini, J. Spain, K. Nehal, V. Hazelwood, C. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoopes, P. J.

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubbard, W. M.

Itzkan, I.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, K.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med.17(4), 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junker, J.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junker, M.

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junker, M. K.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. W.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, J.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, S.

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, S. A.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keshtgar, M. R. S.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerer, L. M.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocjan, G.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kogel, C.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnaswamy, V.

V. Krishnaswamy, A. M. Laughney, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Dark-field scanning in situ spectroscopy platform for broadband imaging of resected tissue,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1911–1913 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laughney, A. M.

Li, Y.

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, K.-H.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madhavan, J.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
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Mallia, J. R.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
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Mandeville, G. D.

Marchesini, R.

Mathews, A.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGuff, H. S.

Y. Wang, M. Raj, H. S. McGuff, G. Bhave, B. Yang, T. Shen, and X. Zhang, “Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(6), 065001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Melloni, E.

Modell, M.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosse, C. A.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med.17(4), 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myakov, A.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nehal, K.

J. Bini, J. Spain, K. Nehal, V. Hazelwood, C. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nehal, K. S.

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieman, L.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. A.

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

V. Krishnaswamy, A. M. Laughney, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Dark-field scanning in situ spectroscopy platform for broadband imaging of resected tissue,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1911–1913 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

V. Krishnaswamy, A. M. Laughney, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Dark-field scanning in situ spectroscopy platform for broadband imaging of resected tissue,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1911–1913 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
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B. W. Pogue and G. C. Burke, “Fiber-optic bundle design for quantitative fluorescence measurement from tissue,” Appl. Opt.37(31), 7429–7436 (1998).
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Poplack, S. P.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, L.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raj, M.

Y. Wang, M. Raj, H. S. McGuff, G. Bhave, B. Yang, T. Shen, and X. Zhang, “Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(6), 065001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

J. Bini, J. Spain, K. Nehal, V. Hazelwood, C. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, L. M.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res.9(13), 4714–4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sachs, B. P.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salahuddin, S.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samkoe, K. S.

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebastian, P.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, T.

Y. Wang, M. Raj, H. S. McGuff, G. Bhave, B. Yang, T. Shen, and X. Zhang, “Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(6), 065001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, T.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med.17(4), 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sichirollo, A. E.

Soho, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soloway, R. D.

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somasundaram, S. K.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spain, J.

J. Bini, J. Spain, K. Nehal, V. Hazelwood, C. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subhash, N.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.-W.

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, K.-H.

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S. S.

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, E.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, M. Raj, H. S. McGuff, G. Bhave, B. Yang, T. Shen, and X. Zhang, “Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(6), 065001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weng, S.-F.

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wicky, L.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, L.

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, L. G.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, M. K.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.-G.

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.-G.

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D.-F.

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, G.-X.

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.-Z.

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

Y. Wang, M. Raj, H. S. McGuff, G. Bhave, B. Yang, T. Shen, and X. Zhang, “Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(6), 065001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-C.

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaman, M. M.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Wang, M. Raj, H. S. McGuff, G. Bhave, B. Yang, T. Shen, and X. Zhang, “Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(6), 065001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg. (1)

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg.198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biopolymers (1)

J.-G. Wu, Y.-Z. Xu, C.-W. Sun, R. D. Soloway, D.-F. Xu, Q.-G. Wu, K.-H. Sun, S.-F. Weng, and G.-X. Xu, “Distinguishing malignant from normal oral tissues using FTIR fiber-optic techniques,” Biopolymers62(4), 185–192 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breast Cancer Res. (1)

S. Kennedy, J. Geradts, T. Bydlon, J. Q. Brown, J. Gallagher, M. Junker, W. Barry, N. Ramanujam, and L. Wilke, “Optical breast cancer margin assessment: an observational study of the effects of tissue heterogeneity on optical contrast,” Breast Cancer Res.12(6), R91 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

A. L. Clark, A. M. Gillenwater, T. G. Collier, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Confocal microscopy for real-time detection of oral cavity neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res.9(13), 4714–4721 (2003).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, L. M. Richards, S. A. Bing Yu, J. Kennedy, L. G. Geradts, M. K. Wilke, J. Junker, W. T. Gallagher, Barry, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 530–544 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

V. Krishnaswamy, P. J. Hoopes, K. S. Samkoe, J. A. O’Hara, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative imaging of scattering changes associated with epithelial proliferation, necrosis, and fibrosis in tumors using microsampling reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(1), 014004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Austwick, B. Clark, C. A. Mosse, K. Johnson, D. W. Chicken, S. K. Somasundaram, K. W. Calabro, Y. Zhu, M. Falzon, G. Kocjan, T. Fearn, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, “Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(4), 047001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: Design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Subhash, J. R. Mallia, S. S. Thomas, A. Mathews, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Oral cancer detection using diffuse reflectance spectral ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin bands,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(1), 014018 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(5), 054001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bini, J. Spain, K. Nehal, V. Hazelwood, C. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

Y. Wang, M. Raj, H. S. McGuff, G. Bhave, B. Yang, T. Shen, and X. Zhang, “Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view,” J. Micromech. Microeng.22(6), 065001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med.17(4), 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

PLoS ONE (1)

N. Lue, J. W. Kang, C.-C. Yu, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, M. S. Feld, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30887 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(21), 12349–12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Labsphere Inc, “Spectralon optical grade reflectance material,” http://labsphere.com.dev4.silvertech.net/products/reflectance-materials-and-coatings/high-reflectance-materials/optical.aspx (2012).

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis (SPIE Press, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A schematic of the dark-field Scanning in situ Spectroscopy (SiS) imaging platform (b) a photograph of the SiS platform (c) ZEMAX optical layout of the illumination optical path (d) ZEMAX optical layout of the detection optical path.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Focus spot profiles at the sample plane shown at 9 different field positions including the center and the extreme field positions (co-ordinates shown are in millimeters). The spots are shown enlarged to illustrate size uniformity and shape symmetry expected in a telecentric design (b-c) the theoretical estimates of spot size at the center (0,0) and an extreme (5,5) field positions. (d-e) experimentally measured spot size at the same field positions

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Average reflectance image of a spectralon standard (b) histogram of the average reflectance image showing no banding effects or patterns. Coefficient of variation is about 0.1 (c) Relative standard deviation spectra of two sequential, 15-minute, single spot measurement sequences. (d) Results from repeating the same set of measurements in (c) on a different day. (e) Reflectance spectra from a matrix of intralipid-blood phantoms, each group represents data from one particular intralipid concentration. Background hemoglobin concentrations for each group varied from 0 to 60 μM. Only the spectral waveband from 610 to 700nm was used to extract the scatter parameters. (f-h) Plots of average reflectance, logarithm of relative scatter amplitude and relative scatter power respectively, as a function of intralipid concentration. Error bars show variations in estimates due to change in background hemoglobin concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lumpectomy specimen images and scatter parameters trends for (a) normal (NOR); (b) fibrocystic disease (FCD); (c) ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and (d) invasive carcinoma (INV). The scatter parameters scatter power (b) and integrated reflectance (Iavg) are shown at right, with the white light and H&E shown left. The relative reflectance for each is shown in (e) and the relative scatter power, b, shown in (f).

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