Abstract

Spectral relationships, reflecting the spectral dependence of water-leaving reflectance, ρw(λ), can be easily implemented in current AC algorithms with the aim to improve ρw(λ) retrievals where the algorithms fail. The present study evaluates the potential of spectral relationships to improve the MUMM [Ruddick et al., 2006, Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167–1179] and standard NASA [Bailey et al., 2010, Opt. Express 18, 7521–7527] near infra-red (NIR) modeling schemes included in the AC algorithm to account for non-zero ρw(λNIR), based on in situ coastal ρw(λ) and simulated Rayleigh corrected reflectance data. Two modified NIR-modeling schemes are investigated: (1) the standard NASA NIR-modeling scheme is forced with bounding relationships in the red spectral domain and with a NIR polynomial relationship and, (2) the constant NIR ρw(λ) ratio used in the MUMM NIR-modeling scheme is replaced by a NIR polynomial spectral relationship. Results suggest that the standard NASA NIR-modeling scheme performs better for all turbidity ranges and in particular in the blue spectral domain (percentage bias decreased by approximately 50%) when it is forced with the red and NIR spectral relationships. However, with these new constraints, more reflectance spectra are flagged due to non-physical Chlorophyll-a concentration estimations. The new polynomial-based MUMM NIR-modeling scheme yielded lower ρw(λ) retrieval errors and particularly in extremely turbid waters. However, including the polynomial NIR relationship significantly increased the sensitivity of the algorithm to errors on the selected aerosol model from nearby clear water pixels.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013 (2)

C. Goyens, C. Jamet, and T. Schroeder, “Evaluation of four atmospheric correction algorithms for MODIS-Aqua images over contrasted coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ.131, 63–75 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Goyens, C. Jamet, and K. Ruddick, “Spectral relationships for atmospheric correction. I. Review and evaluation of red and near infra-red spectral relationships,” Accepted for Publication Opt. Express(2013).

2012 (2)

J. Ahn, Y. Park, J. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J.47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, W. Shi, and L. Jiang, “Atmospheric correction using near-infrared bands for satellite ocean color data processing in the turbid western pacific region,” Opt. Express20, 741–753 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Doron, S. Bélanger, D. Doxaran, and M. Babin, “Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance,” Remote Sens. Environ.115, 1617–1631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jamet, H. Loisel, C. P. Kuchinke, K. Ruddick, G. Zibordi, and H. Feng, “Comparison of three SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters using AERONET-OC measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1955–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithms using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ.113, 635–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens.28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51, 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

B. Sturm, V. Barale, D. Larkin, J. H. Andersen, and M. Turner, “OCEAN code: the complete set of algorithms and models for the level 2 processing of European CZCS historical data,” Int. J. Remote Sens.20(7), 1219–1248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

A. Bricaud and A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: Use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta33–50N.SP, (1987).

1977 (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr.22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.

J. Ahn, Y. Park, J. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J.47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Andersen, J. H.

B. Sturm, V. Barale, D. Larkin, J. H. Andersen, and M. Turner, “OCEAN code: the complete set of algorithms and models for the level 2 processing of European CZCS historical data,” Int. J. Remote Sens.20(7), 1219–1248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt.41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, “A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters,” in SeaW-iFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 51–59 (2003).

Arrigo, K. R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin and T. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, eds., (Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York), pp. 239–256 (1980).

Babin, M.

M. Doron, S. Bélanger, D. Doxaran, and M. Babin, “Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance,” Remote Sens. Environ.115, 1617–1631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, and P. J. Werdell, “Estimations of near-infrared water-leaving reflectance for satellite ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express18, 7521–7527 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barale, V.

B. Sturm, V. Barale, D. Larkin, J. H. Andersen, and M. Turner, “OCEAN code: the complete set of algorithms and models for the level 2 processing of European CZCS historical data,” Int. J. Remote Sens.20(7), 1219–1248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Behnert, I.

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens.28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bélanger, S.

M. Doron, S. Bélanger, D. Doxaran, and M. Babin, “Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance,” Remote Sens. Environ.115, 1617–1631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud and A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: Use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta33–50N.SP, (1987).

Carder, K. L.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt.41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt.37(27) 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Chavez, F. P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Cota, G. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Culver, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

De Cauwer, V.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51, 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doerffer, R.

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens.28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doron, M.

M. Doron, S. Bélanger, D. Doxaran, and M. Babin, “Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance,” Remote Sens. Environ.115, 1617–1631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doxaran, D.

M. Doron, S. Bélanger, D. Doxaran, and M. Babin, “Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance,” Remote Sens. Environ.115, 1617–1631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, H.

C. Jamet, H. Loisel, C. P. Kuchinke, K. Ruddick, G. Zibordi, and H. Feng, “Comparison of three SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters using AERONET-OC measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1955–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models of the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214, U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass. (1979).

Fischer, J.

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens.28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

Gordon, H. R.

Gould, J. R. W.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, “A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters,” in SeaW-iFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 51–59 (2003).

Goyens, C.

C. Goyens, C. Jamet, and T. Schroeder, “Evaluation of four atmospheric correction algorithms for MODIS-Aqua images over contrasted coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ.131, 63–75 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Goyens, C. Jamet, and K. Ruddick, “Spectral relationships for atmospheric correction. I. Review and evaluation of red and near infra-red spectral relationships,” Accepted for Publication Opt. Express(2013).

Harding, L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Hooker, S. B.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Jamet, C.

C. Goyens, C. Jamet, and K. Ruddick, “Spectral relationships for atmospheric correction. I. Review and evaluation of red and near infra-red spectral relationships,” Accepted for Publication Opt. Express(2013).

C. Goyens, C. Jamet, and T. Schroeder, “Evaluation of four atmospheric correction algorithms for MODIS-Aqua images over contrasted coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ.131, 63–75 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Jamet, H. Loisel, C. P. Kuchinke, K. Ruddick, G. Zibordi, and H. Feng, “Comparison of three SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters using AERONET-OC measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1955–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Kuchinke, C. P.

C. Jamet, H. Loisel, C. P. Kuchinke, K. Ruddick, G. Zibordi, and H. Feng, “Comparison of three SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters using AERONET-OC measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1955–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, D.

B. Sturm, V. Barale, D. Larkin, J. H. Andersen, and M. Turner, “OCEAN code: the complete set of algorithms and models for the level 2 processing of European CZCS historical data,” Int. J. Remote Sens.20(7), 1219–1248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

J. Ahn, Y. Park, J. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J.47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z.

Lee, Z. P.

Letelier, R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Loisel, H.

C. Jamet, H. Loisel, C. P. Kuchinke, K. Ruddick, G. Zibordi, and H. Feng, “Comparison of three SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters using AERONET-OC measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1955–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Magnuson, A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Maritorena, S.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: The black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt.39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Martinolich, P. M.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, “A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters,” in SeaW-iFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 51–59 (2003).

McClain, C. R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Mobley, C. D.

Moore, G.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51, 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G. F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud and A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: Use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta33–50N.SP, (1987).

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr.22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Krager, F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

O’Brien, M. C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Oh, I. S.

J. Ahn, Y. Park, J. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J.47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ovidio, F.

Park, Y.

J. Ahn, Y. Park, J. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J.47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51, 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Petzold, T.

R. W. Austin and T. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, eds., (Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York), pp. 239–256 (1980).

Phinney, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Prieur, L.

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr.22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ransibrahmanakul, V.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, “A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters,” in SeaW-iFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 51–59 (2003).

Rijkeboer, M.

Robinson, W.

Ruddick, K.

C. Goyens, C. Jamet, and K. Ruddick, “Spectral relationships for atmospheric correction. I. Review and evaluation of red and near infra-red spectral relationships,” Accepted for Publication Opt. Express(2013).

C. Jamet, H. Loisel, C. P. Kuchinke, K. Ruddick, G. Zibordi, and H. Feng, “Comparison of three SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters using AERONET-OC measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1955–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ruddick, K. G.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51, 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” Appl. Opt.39, 897–912 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J.

J. Ahn, Y. Park, J. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J.47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schaale, M.

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens.28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, T.

C. Goyens, C. Jamet, and T. Schroeder, “Evaluation of four atmospheric correction algorithms for MODIS-Aqua images over contrasted coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ.131, 63–75 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens.28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models of the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214, U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass. (1979).

Shi, W.

M. Wang, W. Shi, and L. Jiang, “Atmospheric correction using near-infrared bands for satellite ocean color data processing in the turbid western pacific region,” Opt. Express20, 741–753 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithms using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ.113, 635–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Siegel, D. A.

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith and W. H. Wilson, “Ship and satellite bio-optical research in the Calofornia Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, eds., (Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York), pp. 281–294 (1980).

Son, S.

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithms using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ.113, 635–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Strutton, P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Stumpf, R. P.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, “A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters,” in SeaW-iFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 51–59 (2003).

Sturm, B.

B. Sturm, V. Barale, D. Larkin, J. H. Andersen, and M. Turner, “OCEAN code: the complete set of algorithms and models for the level 2 processing of European CZCS historical data,” Int. J. Remote Sens.20(7), 1219–1248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toole, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

Turner, M.

B. Sturm, V. Barale, D. Larkin, J. H. Andersen, and M. Turner, “OCEAN code: the complete set of algorithms and models for the level 2 processing of European CZCS historical data,” Int. J. Remote Sens.20(7), 1219–1248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Werdell, P. J.

S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, and P. J. Werdell, “Estimations of near-infrared water-leaving reflectance for satellite ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express18, 7521–7527 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, W. H.

R. C. Smith and W. H. Wilson, “Ship and satellite bio-optical research in the Calofornia Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, eds., (Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York), pp. 281–294 (1980).

Zibordi, G.

C. Jamet, H. Loisel, C. P. Kuchinke, K. Ruddick, G. Zibordi, and H. Feng, “Comparison of three SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters using AERONET-OC measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1955–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

B. Sturm, V. Barale, D. Larkin, J. H. Andersen, and M. Turner, “OCEAN code: the complete set of algorithms and models for the level 2 processing of European CZCS historical data,” Int. J. Remote Sens.20(7), 1219–1248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

T. Schroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens.28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: The similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51, 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr.22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ocean Sci. J. (1)

J. Ahn, Y. Park, J. Ryu, B. Lee, and I. S. Oh, “Development of Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Ocean Sci. J.47(3), 247–259 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oceanol. Acta (1)

A. Bricaud and A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: Use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta33–50N.SP, (1987).

Opt. Express (3)

Remote Sens. Environ. (5)

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithms using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ.113, 635–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Doron, S. Bélanger, D. Doxaran, and M. Babin, “Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance,” Remote Sens. Environ.115, 1617–1631 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jamet, H. Loisel, C. P. Kuchinke, K. Ruddick, G. Zibordi, and H. Feng, “Comparison of three SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters using AERONET-OC measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(8), 1955–1965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Goyens, C. Jamet, and T. Schroeder, “Evaluation of four atmospheric correction algorithms for MODIS-Aqua images over contrasted coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ.131, 63–75 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. C. Smith and W. H. Wilson, “Ship and satellite bio-optical research in the Calofornia Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, eds., (Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York), pp. 281–294 (1980).

R. W. Austin and T. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, eds., (Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York), pp. 239–256 (1980).

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, “A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters,” in SeaW-iFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 51–59 (2003).

Z. Lee, B. Lubac, J. Werdell, and R. Arnone, “An update of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA v5),” available at: http://www.ioccg.org/groups/Software_OCA/QAA_v5.pdf (2009).

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models of the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214, U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass. (1979).

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. E. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Krager, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, Volume 11, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland), pp. 9–23 (2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic flowchart of the sensitivity study set-up for the STD and MUMM algorithms. ρ w in situ ( λ ) and ρ w est ( λ ) are the in situ and estimated ρw(λ), respectively, and λ1 and λ2 designate the two wavelengths in the NIR spectral region. Dashed lines indicate the iterative processes for the STD algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Box plots of percentage bias for the STD (a–e) and MUMM (f–j) algorithms for moderately (m, ρw(869) > 10−4 and ρw(869) < 3.10−3) and very (v, ρw(869) > 3.10−3)) turbid waters and when considering only the extremely turbid waters (e, ρw(869) > 10−2). Box plots indicate median with first and third quartiles, upper and lower whiskers and outliers (small circles, ±1.5IQR). The horizontal grey lines indicate a bias of 0% (occurring when ρw(λ) are perfectly retrieved).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Median percentage bias as a function of wavelength for (a) moderately and (b) very turbid waters and (c) when considering only the most turbid waters (ρw(869) > 10−2) with STD: initial STD Algorithm, MUMM: initial MUMM algorithm assuming the correct aerosol model, MUMMc90: MUMM algorithm assuming the incorrect C90 aerosol model, MUMMPoly: polynomial-based MUMM algorithm, MUMMPoly–c90: polynomial-based MUMM algorithm assuming the incorrect C90 aerosol model, and STDCon: constrained STD algorithm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of retrieved reflectance spectra and median (average, standard deviation) percentage bias per wavelength (412, 488, 547, 667, 748, and 869 nm). For comparison, statistics for the original STD algorithm are also given when considering only the spectra retrieved with the constrained STD algorithm.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ r c T O A = ρ a T O A ( λ ) + ρ r a T O A ( λ ) + t θ v ( λ ) t θ 0 ( λ ) ρ w ( λ ) .
ρ a m ( λ ) = ρ a m ( λ 0 ) ( λ λ 0 ) η
Bias = 100 ρ w est ( λ ) ρ w in situ ( λ ) ρ w in situ ( λ )
α = ρ w ( 748 ) ρ w ( 869 ) = 1.945
ρ a m ( λ i ) = ε ( λ i , λ j ) α ( λ i , λ j ) ρ r c ( λ j ) ρ r c ( λ i ) α ( λ i , λ j ) ε ( λ i , λ j )
ρ a m ( λ j ) = α ( λ i , λ j ) ρ r c ( λ j ) ρ r c ( λ i ) α ( λ i , λ j ) ε ( λ i , λ j )
ρ r c ( 748 ) = ρ a m ( 748 ) + t 748 * ρ w ( 748 )
ρ r c ( 869 ) = ρ a m ( 869 ) + t 869 * [ a ρ w ( 748 ) + b ρ w ( 748 ) 2 ]
ε = ρ a m ( 748 ) ρ a m ( 869 ) = ( λ λ 0 ) η
ρ r c ( 869 ) = 1 ε ρ a m ( 748 ) + a t 869 * ρ w ( 748 ) + b t 869 * ρ w ( 748 ) 2 .
b ε t 869 * ρ w ( 748 ) 2 + [ a ε t 869 * t 748 * ] ρ w ( 748 ) + [ ρ r c ( 748 ) ε ρ r c ( 869 ) ] = 0.
ρ w ( 748 ) = [ t 748 * a ε t 869 * ] [ a ε t 869 * t 748 * ] 2 4 b ε t 869 * [ ρ r c ( 748 ) ε ρ r c ( 869 ) ] 2 b ε t 869 *

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