Abstract

Graduated compression bandaging of the lower limbs is the primary therapy for venous leg ulcers with its efficacy believed to be predominantly dependent on the amount and the distribution of the compressive pressure applied. There has been on-going demand for an ideal sensor to facilitate in-vivo monitoring of the sub-bandage pressure. Several methods and devices have been reported but each has its limitations, such as bulkiness, low tolerance to movement, susceptible to thermal noise and single point sensing. An optical fiber force sensor is demonstrated, consisting of two arrays of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) entwined in a double helix form and packaged with contact-force sensitivity. This sensor array has inherent temperature immunity and is capable of real-time, distributed sensing of sub-bandage pressure. The calibration results of the sensor array, as well as the validation human trial results, are presented.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. J. J. Bergan, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, P. D. Smith, A. N. Nicolaides, M. R. Boisseau, and B. Eklof, “Chronic venous disease,” N. Engl. J. Med.355(5), 488–498 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. J. London and R. Donnelly, “ABC of arterial and venous disease. ulcerated lower limb,” BMJ320(7249), 1589–1591 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Wertheim, J. Melhuish, R. Williams, and K. Harding, “Measurement of forces associated with compression therapy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.37(1), 31–34 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Hafner, W. Lüthi, H. Hänssle, G. Kammerlander, and G. Burg, “Instruction of compression therapy by means of interface pressure measurement,” Dermatol. Surg.26(5), 481–486, discussion 487 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. B. Raj, M. Goddard, and G. S. Makin, “How long do compression bandages maintain their pressure during ambulatory treatment of varicose veins?” Br. J. Surg.67(2), 122–124 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Thomas, “The use of the Laplace equation in the calculation of sub-bandage pressure,” EWMA J.3, 21–23 (2003).
  8. J. Schuren and K. Mohr, “The efficacy of Laplace’s equation in calculating bandage pressure in venous leg ulcers,” Wounds UK4, 38–47 (2008).
  9. M. D. Steinberg and E. D. Cooke, “Design and evaluation of a device for measurement of interface pressure,” J. Biomed. Eng.15(6), 464–468 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. C. Barbenel and S. Sockalingham, “Device for measuring soft tissue interface pressures,” J. Biomed. Eng.12(6), 519–522 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Ferguson-Pell, S. Hagisawa, and D. Bain, “Evaluation of a sensor for low interface pressure applications,” Med. Eng. Phys.22(9), 657–663 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8(4), 355–375 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. Arkwright, N. G. Blenman, I. D. Underhill, S. A. Maunder, M. M. Szczesniak, P. G. Dinning, and I. J. Cook, “In-vivo demonstration of a high resolution optical fiber manometry catheter for diagnosis of gastrointestinal motility disorders,” Opt. Express17(6), 4500–4508 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Moore, “Compression bandaging: are practitioners achieving the ideal sub-bandage pressures?” J. Wound Care11(7), 265–268 (2002).
    [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Schuren and K. Mohr, “The efficacy of Laplace’s equation in calculating bandage pressure in venous leg ulcers,” Wounds UK4, 38–47 (2008).

2006 (2)

J. J. Bergan, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, P. D. Smith, A. N. Nicolaides, M. R. Boisseau, and B. Eklof, “Chronic venous disease,” N. Engl. J. Med.355(5), 488–498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Thomas, “The use of the Laplace equation in the calculation of sub-bandage pressure,” EWMA J.3, 21–23 (2003).

2002 (1)

Z. Moore, “Compression bandaging: are practitioners achieving the ideal sub-bandage pressures?” J. Wound Care11(7), 265–268 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (3)

M. Ferguson-Pell, S. Hagisawa, and D. Bain, “Evaluation of a sensor for low interface pressure applications,” Med. Eng. Phys.22(9), 657–663 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. London and R. Donnelly, “ABC of arterial and venous disease. ulcerated lower limb,” BMJ320(7249), 1589–1591 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hafner, W. Lüthi, H. Hänssle, G. Kammerlander, and G. Burg, “Instruction of compression therapy by means of interface pressure measurement,” Dermatol. Surg.26(5), 481–486, discussion 487 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. Wertheim, J. Melhuish, R. Williams, and K. Harding, “Measurement of forces associated with compression therapy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.37(1), 31–34 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Y. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8(4), 355–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. D. Steinberg and E. D. Cooke, “Design and evaluation of a device for measurement of interface pressure,” J. Biomed. Eng.15(6), 464–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. C. Barbenel and S. Sockalingham, “Device for measuring soft tissue interface pressures,” J. Biomed. Eng.12(6), 519–522 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

T. B. Raj, M. Goddard, and G. S. Makin, “How long do compression bandages maintain their pressure during ambulatory treatment of varicose veins?” Br. J. Surg.67(2), 122–124 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arkwright, J. W.

Bain, D.

M. Ferguson-Pell, S. Hagisawa, and D. Bain, “Evaluation of a sensor for low interface pressure applications,” Med. Eng. Phys.22(9), 657–663 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbenel, J. C.

J. C. Barbenel and S. Sockalingham, “Device for measuring soft tissue interface pressures,” J. Biomed. Eng.12(6), 519–522 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassez, S.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, F.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benigni, J. P.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergan, J. J.

J. J. Bergan, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, P. D. Smith, A. N. Nicolaides, M. R. Boisseau, and B. Eklof, “Chronic venous disease,” N. Engl. J. Med.355(5), 488–498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blazek, V.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blenman, N. G.

Boisseau, M. R.

J. J. Bergan, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, P. D. Smith, A. N. Nicolaides, M. R. Boisseau, and B. Eklof, “Chronic venous disease,” N. Engl. J. Med.355(5), 488–498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burg, G.

J. Hafner, W. Lüthi, H. Hänssle, G. Kammerlander, and G. Burg, “Instruction of compression therapy by means of interface pressure measurement,” Dermatol. Surg.26(5), 481–486, discussion 487 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caprini, J.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, M.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, I. J.

Cooke, E. D.

M. D. Steinberg and E. D. Cooke, “Design and evaluation of a device for measurement of interface pressure,” J. Biomed. Eng.15(6), 464–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornu-Thénard, A.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinning, P. G.

Donnelly, R.

N. J. London and R. Donnelly, “ABC of arterial and venous disease. ulcerated lower limb,” BMJ320(7249), 1589–1591 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eklof, B.

J. J. Bergan, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, P. D. Smith, A. N. Nicolaides, M. R. Boisseau, and B. Eklof, “Chronic venous disease,” N. Engl. J. Med.355(5), 488–498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson-Pell, M.

M. Ferguson-Pell, S. Hagisawa, and D. Bain, “Evaluation of a sensor for low interface pressure applications,” Med. Eng. Phys.22(9), 657–663 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flour, M.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goddard, M.

T. B. Raj, M. Goddard, and G. S. Makin, “How long do compression bandages maintain their pressure during ambulatory treatment of varicose veins?” Br. J. Surg.67(2), 122–124 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafner, J.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hafner, W. Lüthi, H. Hänssle, G. Kammerlander, and G. Burg, “Instruction of compression therapy by means of interface pressure measurement,” Dermatol. Surg.26(5), 481–486, discussion 487 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagisawa, S.

M. Ferguson-Pell, S. Hagisawa, and D. Bain, “Evaluation of a sensor for low interface pressure applications,” Med. Eng. Phys.22(9), 657–663 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänssle, H.

J. Hafner, W. Lüthi, H. Hänssle, G. Kammerlander, and G. Burg, “Instruction of compression therapy by means of interface pressure measurement,” Dermatol. Surg.26(5), 481–486, discussion 487 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harding, K.

D. Wertheim, J. Melhuish, R. Williams, and K. Harding, “Measurement of forces associated with compression therapy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.37(1), 31–34 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jünger, M.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kammerlander, G.

J. Hafner, W. Lüthi, H. Hänssle, G. Kammerlander, and G. Burg, “Instruction of compression therapy by means of interface pressure measurement,” Dermatol. Surg.26(5), 481–486, discussion 487 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

London, N. J.

N. J. London and R. Donnelly, “ABC of arterial and venous disease. ulcerated lower limb,” BMJ320(7249), 1589–1591 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüthi, W.

J. Hafner, W. Lüthi, H. Hänssle, G. Kammerlander, and G. Burg, “Instruction of compression therapy by means of interface pressure measurement,” Dermatol. Surg.26(5), 481–486, discussion 487 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makin, G. S.

T. B. Raj, M. Goddard, and G. S. Makin, “How long do compression bandages maintain their pressure during ambulatory treatment of varicose veins?” Br. J. Surg.67(2), 122–124 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maunder, S. A.

Melhuish, J.

D. Wertheim, J. Melhuish, R. Williams, and K. Harding, “Measurement of forces associated with compression therapy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.37(1), 31–34 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffatt, C.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohr, K.

J. Schuren and K. Mohr, “The efficacy of Laplace’s equation in calculating bandage pressure in venous leg ulcers,” Wounds UK4, 38–47 (2008).

Moore, Z.

Z. Moore, “Compression bandaging: are practitioners achieving the ideal sub-bandage pressures?” J. Wound Care11(7), 265–268 (2002).
[PubMed]

Neumann, M.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolaides, A. N.

J. J. Bergan, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, P. D. Smith, A. N. Nicolaides, M. R. Boisseau, and B. Eklof, “Chronic venous disease,” N. Engl. J. Med.355(5), 488–498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Partsch, H.

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raj, T. B.

T. B. Raj, M. Goddard, and G. S. Makin, “How long do compression bandages maintain their pressure during ambulatory treatment of varicose veins?” Br. J. Surg.67(2), 122–124 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, Y.

Y. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8(4), 355–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmid-Schönbein, G. W.

J. J. Bergan, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, P. D. Smith, A. N. Nicolaides, M. R. Boisseau, and B. Eklof, “Chronic venous disease,” N. Engl. J. Med.355(5), 488–498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuren, J.

J. Schuren and K. Mohr, “The efficacy of Laplace’s equation in calculating bandage pressure in venous leg ulcers,” Wounds UK4, 38–47 (2008).

Smith, P. D.

J. J. Bergan, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, P. D. Smith, A. N. Nicolaides, M. R. Boisseau, and B. Eklof, “Chronic venous disease,” N. Engl. J. Med.355(5), 488–498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sockalingham, S.

J. C. Barbenel and S. Sockalingham, “Device for measuring soft tissue interface pressures,” J. Biomed. Eng.12(6), 519–522 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinberg, M. D.

M. D. Steinberg and E. D. Cooke, “Design and evaluation of a device for measurement of interface pressure,” J. Biomed. Eng.15(6), 464–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szczesniak, M. M.

Thomas, S.

S. Thomas, “The use of the Laplace equation in the calculation of sub-bandage pressure,” EWMA J.3, 21–23 (2003).

Underhill, I. D.

Wertheim, D.

D. Wertheim, J. Melhuish, R. Williams, and K. Harding, “Measurement of forces associated with compression therapy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.37(1), 31–34 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R.

D. Wertheim, J. Melhuish, R. Williams, and K. Harding, “Measurement of forces associated with compression therapy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.37(1), 31–34 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

BMJ (1)

N. J. London and R. Donnelly, “ABC of arterial and venous disease. ulcerated lower limb,” BMJ320(7249), 1589–1591 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Surg. (1)

T. B. Raj, M. Goddard, and G. S. Makin, “How long do compression bandages maintain their pressure during ambulatory treatment of varicose veins?” Br. J. Surg.67(2), 122–124 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg. (2)

H. Partsch, M. Clark, S. Bassez, J. P. Benigni, F. Becker, V. Blazek, J. Caprini, A. Cornu-Thénard, J. Hafner, M. Flour, M. Jünger, C. Moffatt, and M. Neumann, “Measurement of lower leg compression in vivo: Recommendations for the performance of measurements of interface pressure and stiffness: Consensus statement,” Dermatol. Surg.32(2), 224–232, discussion 233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hafner, W. Lüthi, H. Hänssle, G. Kammerlander, and G. Burg, “Instruction of compression therapy by means of interface pressure measurement,” Dermatol. Surg.26(5), 481–486, discussion 487 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

EWMA J. (1)

S. Thomas, “The use of the Laplace equation in the calculation of sub-bandage pressure,” EWMA J.3, 21–23 (2003).

J. Biomed. Eng. (2)

M. D. Steinberg and E. D. Cooke, “Design and evaluation of a device for measurement of interface pressure,” J. Biomed. Eng.15(6), 464–468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Barbenel and S. Sockalingham, “Device for measuring soft tissue interface pressures,” J. Biomed. Eng.12(6), 519–522 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wound Care (1)

Z. Moore, “Compression bandaging: are practitioners achieving the ideal sub-bandage pressures?” J. Wound Care11(7), 265–268 (2002).
[PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.8(4), 355–375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

D. Wertheim, J. Melhuish, R. Williams, and K. Harding, “Measurement of forces associated with compression therapy,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.37(1), 31–34 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

M. Ferguson-Pell, S. Hagisawa, and D. Bain, “Evaluation of a sensor for low interface pressure applications,” Med. Eng. Phys.22(9), 657–663 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

J. J. Bergan, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, P. D. Smith, A. N. Nicolaides, M. R. Boisseau, and B. Eklof, “Chronic venous disease,” N. Engl. J. Med.355(5), 488–498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Wounds UK (1)

J. Schuren and K. Mohr, “The efficacy of Laplace’s equation in calculating bandage pressure in venous leg ulcers,” Wounds UK4, 38–47 (2008).

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