Abstract

Multi-spectral imaging systems typically require the cumbersome integration of disparate filtering materials in order to work simultaneously in multiple spectral regions. We show for the first time how a single nano-patterned metal film can be used to filter multi-spectral content from the visible, near infrared and terahertz bands by hybridizing plasmonics and metamaterials. Plasmonic structures are well-suited to the visible band owing to the resonant dielectric properties of metals, whereas metamaterials are preferable at terahertz frequencies where metal conductivity is high. We present the simulated and experimental characteristics of our new hybrid synthetic multi-spectral material filters and demonstrate the independence of the metamaterial and plasmonic responses with respect to each other.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

A. L. Chan and S. R. Schnelle, “Fusing concurrent visible and infrared videos for improved tracking performance,” Opt. Eng.52(1), 017004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

M. Kowalski, M. Piszczek, N. Palka, and M. Szustakowski, “Improvement of passive THz camera images,” Proc. SPIE8544, 85440N, 85440N-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “CMOS photodetectors integrated with plasmonic color filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 197–199 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

J. Grant, Y. Ma, S. Saha, L. B. Lok, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Polarization insensitive terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1524–1526 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grant, Y. Ma, S. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Polarization insensitive, broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3476–3478 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-Y. Hsieh and M. Jarrahi, “Analysis of periodic metallic nano-slits for efficient interaction of terahertz and optical waves at nano-scale dimensions,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 084326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Inoue, A. Miura, T. Nomura, H. Fujikawa, K. Sato, N. Ikeda, D. Tsuya, Y. Sugimoto, and Y. Koide, “Polarization independent visible color filter comprising an aluminum film with surface-plasmon enhanced transmission through a subwavelength array of holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(9), 093113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Chiang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-H. Yang, C.-L. Pan, and T.-J. Yen, “An ultrabroad terahertz bandpass filter based on multiple-resonance excitation of a composite metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(19), 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen and D. R. S. Cumming, “High transmission and low color cross-talk plasmonic color filters using triangular-lattice hole arrays in aluminum films,” Opt. Express18(13), 14056–14062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen and D. R. S. Cumming, “Visible light focusing demonstrated by plasmonic lenses based on nano-slits in an aluminum film,” Opt. Express18(14), 14788–14793 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ma, A. Khalid, T. D. Drysdale, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Direct fabrication of terahertz optical devices on low-absorption polymer substrates,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1555–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: visible, infrared, and terahertz object recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Paul, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Highly selective terahertz bandpass filters based on trapped mode excitation,” Opt. Express17(21), 18590–18595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

2007 (5)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Kong, J. Heo, F. Boughorbel, Y. Zheng, B. R. Abidi, A. Koschan, M. Yi, and M. A. Abidi, “Multiscale fusion of visible and thermal IR images for illumination-invariant face recognition,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.71(2), 215–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys.102(4), 043517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(4), 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320x240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.71(33 Pt 2B), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Abidi, B. R.

S. G. Kong, J. Heo, F. Boughorbel, Y. Zheng, B. R. Abidi, A. Koschan, M. Yi, and M. A. Abidi, “Multiscale fusion of visible and thermal IR images for illumination-invariant face recognition,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.71(2), 215–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abidi, M. A.

S. G. Kong, J. Heo, F. Boughorbel, Y. Zheng, B. R. Abidi, A. Koschan, M. Yi, and M. A. Abidi, “Multiscale fusion of visible and thermal IR images for illumination-invariant face recognition,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.71(2), 215–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anders, S.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: visible, infrared, and terahertz object recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aronsson, M. T.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Barnard, E. S.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, O. H.

Beigang, R.

Bingham, C. M.

Boltasseva, A.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bortolucci, E. C.

Boughorbel, F.

S. G. Kong, J. Heo, F. Boughorbel, Y. Zheng, B. R. Abidi, A. Koschan, M. Yi, and M. A. Abidi, “Multiscale fusion of visible and thermal IR images for illumination-invariant face recognition,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.71(2), 215–233 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catrysse, P. B.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Catrysse and B. A. Wandell, “Integrated color pixels in 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A20(12), 2293–2306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chan, A. L.

A. L. Chan and S. R. Schnelle, “Fusing concurrent visible and infrared videos for improved tracking performance,” Opt. Eng.52(1), 017004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “CMOS photodetectors integrated with plasmonic color filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 197–199 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen and D. R. S. Cumming, “Visible light focusing demonstrated by plasmonic lenses based on nano-slits in an aluminum film,” Opt. Express18(14), 14788–14793 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen and D. R. S. Cumming, “High transmission and low color cross-talk plasmonic color filters using triangular-lattice hole arrays in aluminum films,” Opt. Express18(13), 14056–14062 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Chiang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-H. Yang, C.-L. Pan, and T.-J. Yen, “An ultrabroad terahertz bandpass filter based on multiple-resonance excitation of a composite metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(19), 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chitnis, D.

Q. Chen, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “CMOS photodetectors integrated with plasmonic color filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 197–199 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S.

Q. Chen, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “CMOS photodetectors integrated with plasmonic color filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 197–199 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, D. R. S.

da Silva, A. M.

Das, D.

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drysdale, T. D.

Q. Chen, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “CMOS photodetectors integrated with plasmonic color filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 197–199 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
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D. Inoue, A. Miura, T. Nomura, H. Fujikawa, K. Sato, N. Ikeda, D. Tsuya, Y. Sugimoto, and Y. Koide, “Polarization independent visible color filter comprising an aluminum film with surface-plasmon enhanced transmission through a subwavelength array of holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(9), 093113 (2011).
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S. G. Kong, J. Heo, F. Boughorbel, Y. Zheng, B. R. Abidi, A. Koschan, M. Yi, and M. A. Abidi, “Multiscale fusion of visible and thermal IR images for illumination-invariant face recognition,” Int. J. Comput. Vis.71(2), 215–233 (2007).
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N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051105 (2008).
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Lee, A. W. M.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320x240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
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W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
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L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
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Lok, L. B.

Ma, Y.

Martín-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
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T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: visible, infrared, and terahertz object recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E (2009).
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L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
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Meyer, H.-G.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: visible, infrared, and terahertz object recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E (2009).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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Padilla, W. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
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H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
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W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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Palka, N.

M. Kowalski, M. Piszczek, N. Palka, and M. Szustakowski, “Improvement of passive THz camera images,” Proc. SPIE8544, 85440N, 85440N-8 (2012).
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J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
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J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
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J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
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Piazzetta, M. H.

Piszczek, M.

M. Kowalski, M. Piszczek, N. Palka, and M. Szustakowski, “Improvement of passive THz camera images,” Proc. SPIE8544, 85440N, 85440N-8 (2012).
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Poglitsch, A.

Rahm, M.

Rakic, A. D.

Reno, J. L.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320x240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: visible, infrared, and terahertz object recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saha, S.

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Inoue, A. Miura, T. Nomura, H. Fujikawa, K. Sato, N. Ikeda, D. Tsuya, Y. Sugimoto, and Y. Koide, “Polarization independent visible color filter comprising an aluminum film with surface-plasmon enhanced transmission through a subwavelength array of holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(9), 093113 (2011).
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A. L. Chan and S. R. Schnelle, “Fusing concurrent visible and infrared videos for improved tracking performance,” Opt. Eng.52(1), 017004 (2013).
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T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: visible, infrared, and terahertz object recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(4), 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(4), 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.71(33 Pt 2B), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.71(33 Pt 2B), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starkloff, M.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: visible, infrared, and terahertz object recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, Y.

D. Inoue, A. Miura, T. Nomura, H. Fujikawa, K. Sato, N. Ikeda, D. Tsuya, Y. Sugimoto, and Y. Koide, “Polarization independent visible color filter comprising an aluminum film with surface-plasmon enhanced transmission through a subwavelength array of holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(9), 093113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Szustakowski, M.

M. Kowalski, M. Piszczek, N. Palka, and M. Szustakowski, “Improvement of passive THz camera images,” Proc. SPIE8544, 85440N, 85440N-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

Taylor, A. J.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thorwirth, G.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: visible, infrared, and terahertz object recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsuya, D.

D. Inoue, A. Miura, T. Nomura, H. Fujikawa, K. Sato, N. Ikeda, D. Tsuya, Y. Sugimoto, and Y. Koide, “Polarization independent visible color filter comprising an aluminum film with surface-plasmon enhanced transmission through a subwavelength array of holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(9), 093113 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Synthetic multi-spectral material (SMM) schematic. (a) Schematic of a plasmonic filter with unit cell highlighted and the array period, P, shown. (b) Schematic of a terahertz metamaterial (MM) filter unit cell with complementary electric ring resonator (cERR) dimensions shown. A plasmonic hole array is included, however it is not to scale. (c) An illustration of the SMM at various length scales. (d) A cross section of the SMM showing the layer structure and incident field direction shown by propagation vector, k.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of a fabricated synthetic multi-spectral material (SMM). (a) A scanning electron micrograph of the etched complementary electric ring resonator (cERR) structure and hole array (period 430 nm). (b) A scanning electron micrograph of the etched hole array (period 430 nm) on the metal film. (c) Transmission microscope images of the SMM showing blue (hole period 250 nm), (d) green (hole period 340 nm), (e) yellow (hole period 380 nm) and (f) red (hole period 430 nm) plasmonic filters with the cERR array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectra for the synthetic multi-spectral material (SMM). The individual filter spectra are shown in (a)-(d). The legend denotes the hole period, P, and diameter, d, for the plasmonic filters. cERR denotes the spectral characteristics due to the metamaterial (MM) filter component. (e) SMM spectral characteristics over a large wavelength range. Plasmonic filter regions of the SMM with hole periods: 250 nm (blue), 330 nm (green), 430 nm (red) and 550 nm (near infrared) are shown in addition to the MM filter component.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the simulated standalone plasmonic filter spectra and the measured transmission spectra of plasmonic filter regions of the synthetic multi-spectral material (SMM). (a) A comparison of simulated peak wavelength with experimentally measured peak wavelength for the sixteen plasmonic filters included on the SMM. (b) Simulated transmission spectra for standalone RGB plasmonic filters and the scaled SMM RGB plasmonic filter spectra. The SMM spectra are scaled to account for the presence of the complementary electric ring resonator (cERR) gaps.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Metamaterial (MM) filter simulation results and extracted effective parameters. (a) Simulated transmission spectra. The experimental results of the synthetic multi-spectral material (SMM) filter and a standalone MM filter without plasmonic filters are shown for comparison. (b) The complex effective permittivity of the SMM at terahertz frequencies and bulk aluminum permittivity at UV wavelengths. The vertical line denotes where the real effective permittivity of the SMM and the real permittivity of bulk aluminum crosses zero. This is at the effective plasma frequency of the SMM and the plasma frequency of aluminum. The bottom x axis and the left y axis are for the SMM effective parameters. The top x axis and the right y axis are for aluminum parameters.

Equations (5)

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λ max = P 4 3 ( i 2 +ij+ j 2 ) ε m ε d ε m + ε d .
n eff = 1 kd cos 1 [ 1 2 S 21 ( 1 S 11 2 + S 21 2 ) ].
z eff = ( 1+ S 11 ) 2 S 21 2 ( 1 S 11 ) 2 S 21 2 .
ε eff = n eff z eff .
μ eff = n eff z eff .

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