Abstract

Diatoms are single-celled algaes that make photonic-crystal-like silica shells or frustules with hierarchical micro- & nano-scale features consisting of two-dimensional periodic pores. This article reports the use of diatom frustules as an integration platform to enhance localized surface plasmon resonances of self-assembled silver nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of diatom frustules. Theoretical and experimental results show enhanced localized surface plasmons due to the coupling with the guided-mode resonances of the frustules. We observed 2 × stronger optical extinction and over 4 × higher sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering of Rhodmine 6G from the NPs-on-diatom than the NPs-on-glass structure.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. R. Gordon, D. Losic, M. A. Tiffany, S. S. Nagy, and F. A. Sterrenburg, “The Glass Menagerie: diatoms for novel applications in nanotechnology,” Trends Biotechnol.27(2), 116–127 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Jeffeyes, J. Campbell, H. Li, J. Jiao, and G. L. Rorrer, “The potential of diatom nanobiotechnology for applications in solar cells, batteries, and electroluminescent devices,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(10), 3930–3941 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. K. Song, S. Park, F. M. Alamgir, J. Cho, and M. Liu, “Nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries: the latest developments, challenges, and perspectives,” Mater. Sci. Eng.72(11), 203–252 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. K. Gale, T. Gutu, J. Jiao, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Photoluminescence detection of biomolecules by antibody-functionalized diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 926–933 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Zhang, G. Liu, and H. Li, “Development of a micro-swimming robot using optimized giant magnetostrictive thin films,” Appl. Bionics Biomech.3(3), 161–170 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Jeffryes, R. Solanki, Y. Rangineni, W. Wang, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Electro-luminescence and photoluminescence from nanostructured diatom frustules containing metabolically inserted Germanium,” Adv. Mater.20(13), 2633–2637 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Losic, J. G. Mitchell, R. Lal, and N. H. Voelcker, “Rapid fabrication of micro- and nanoscale patterns by replica molding from diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(14), 2439–2446 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Losic, G. Rosengarten, J. G. Mitchell, and N. H. Voelcker, “Pore architecture of diatom frustules: potential nanostructured membranes for molecular and particle separations,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.6(4), 982–989 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Yu, J. Addai-Mensah, and D. Losic, “Synthesis of self-supporting gold microstructures with three-dimensional morphologies by direct replication of diatom templates,” Langmuir26(17), 14068–14072 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and K. H. Sandhage, “Bilogically enabled syntheses of freestanding metallic structures possessing subwavelength pore arrays for extraordinary (surface plasmon-mediated) infrared transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(12), 2550–2559 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Sabarinathan, J. Topol'ancik, S. Chakravarty, P.-C. Yu, and W. Zhou, “Quantum dot photonic crystal light sources,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1825–1838 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. S. Aćimović, M. P. Kreuzer, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon near-field coupling in metal dimers as a step toward single-molecule sensing,” ACS Nano3(5), 1231–1237 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Liu, T. Zhu, R. Hua, and Z. Liu, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into a highly organized two-dimensional array,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.4(24), 6059–6062 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and K. H. Sandhage, “Bilogically enabled syntheses of freestanding metallic structures possessing subwavelength pore arrays for extraordinary (surface plasmon-mediated) infrared transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(12), 2550–2559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C. Jeffeyes, J. Campbell, H. Li, J. Jiao, and G. L. Rorrer, “The potential of diatom nanobiotechnology for applications in solar cells, batteries, and electroluminescent devices,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(10), 3930–3941 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Song, S. Park, F. M. Alamgir, J. Cho, and M. Liu, “Nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries: the latest developments, challenges, and perspectives,” Mater. Sci. Eng.72(11), 203–252 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. Yu, J. Addai-Mensah, and D. Losic, “Synthesis of self-supporting gold microstructures with three-dimensional morphologies by direct replication of diatom templates,” Langmuir26(17), 14068–14072 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. S. Aćimović, M. P. Kreuzer, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon near-field coupling in metal dimers as a step toward single-molecule sensing,” ACS Nano3(5), 1231–1237 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gordon, D. Losic, M. A. Tiffany, S. S. Nagy, and F. A. Sterrenburg, “The Glass Menagerie: diatoms for novel applications in nanotechnology,” Trends Biotechnol.27(2), 116–127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gale, T. Gutu, J. Jiao, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Photoluminescence detection of biomolecules by antibody-functionalized diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 926–933 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Jeffryes, R. Solanki, Y. Rangineni, W. Wang, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Electro-luminescence and photoluminescence from nanostructured diatom frustules containing metabolically inserted Germanium,” Adv. Mater.20(13), 2633–2637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Losic, J. G. Mitchell, R. Lal, and N. H. Voelcker, “Rapid fabrication of micro- and nanoscale patterns by replica molding from diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(14), 2439–2446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Losic, G. Rosengarten, J. G. Mitchell, and N. H. Voelcker, “Pore architecture of diatom frustules: potential nanostructured membranes for molecular and particle separations,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.6(4), 982–989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, G. Liu, and H. Li, “Development of a micro-swimming robot using optimized giant magnetostrictive thin films,” Appl. Bionics Biomech.3(3), 161–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Sabarinathan, J. Topol'ancik, S. Chakravarty, P.-C. Yu, and W. Zhou, “Quantum dot photonic crystal light sources,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1825–1838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. Liu, T. Zhu, R. Hua, and Z. Liu, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into a highly organized two-dimensional array,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.4(24), 6059–6062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1982

P. C. Lee and D. J. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” Phys. Chem.86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Acimovic, S. S.

S. S. Aćimović, M. P. Kreuzer, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon near-field coupling in metal dimers as a step toward single-molecule sensing,” ACS Nano3(5), 1231–1237 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Addai-Mensah, J.

Y. Yu, J. Addai-Mensah, and D. Losic, “Synthesis of self-supporting gold microstructures with three-dimensional morphologies by direct replication of diatom templates,” Langmuir26(17), 14068–14072 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alamgir, F. M.

M. K. Song, S. Park, F. M. Alamgir, J. Cho, and M. Liu, “Nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries: the latest developments, challenges, and perspectives,” Mater. Sci. Eng.72(11), 203–252 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Au, L.

M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basu, S.

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berrigan, J. D.

Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and K. H. Sandhage, “Bilogically enabled syntheses of freestanding metallic structures possessing subwavelength pore arrays for extraordinary (surface plasmon-mediated) infrared transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(12), 2550–2559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and K. H. Sandhage, “Bilogically enabled syntheses of freestanding metallic structures possessing subwavelength pore arrays for extraordinary (surface plasmon-mediated) infrared transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(12), 2550–2559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

C. Jeffeyes, J. Campbell, H. Li, J. Jiao, and G. L. Rorrer, “The potential of diatom nanobiotechnology for applications in solar cells, batteries, and electroluminescent devices,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(10), 3930–3941 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, S.

J. Sabarinathan, J. Topol'ancik, S. Chakravarty, P.-C. Yu, and W. Zhou, “Quantum dot photonic crystal light sources,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1825–1838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

D. K. Gale, T. Gutu, J. Jiao, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Photoluminescence detection of biomolecules by antibody-functionalized diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 926–933 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jeffryes, R. Solanki, Y. Rangineni, W. Wang, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Electro-luminescence and photoluminescence from nanostructured diatom frustules containing metabolically inserted Germanium,” Adv. Mater.20(13), 2633–2637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, V. W.

Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and K. H. Sandhage, “Bilogically enabled syntheses of freestanding metallic structures possessing subwavelength pore arrays for extraordinary (surface plasmon-mediated) infrared transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(12), 2550–2559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

M. K. Song, S. Park, F. M. Alamgir, J. Cho, and M. Liu, “Nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries: the latest developments, challenges, and perspectives,” Mater. Sci. Eng.72(11), 203–252 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and K. H. Sandhage, “Bilogically enabled syntheses of freestanding metallic structures possessing subwavelength pore arrays for extraordinary (surface plasmon-mediated) infrared transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(12), 2550–2559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gale, D. K.

D. K. Gale, T. Gutu, J. Jiao, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Photoluminescence detection of biomolecules by antibody-functionalized diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 926–933 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S. K.

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González, M. U.

S. S. Aćimović, M. P. Kreuzer, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon near-field coupling in metal dimers as a step toward single-molecule sensing,” ACS Nano3(5), 1231–1237 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, D. Losic, M. A. Tiffany, S. S. Nagy, and F. A. Sterrenburg, “The Glass Menagerie: diatoms for novel applications in nanotechnology,” Trends Biotechnol.27(2), 116–127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutu, T.

D. K. Gale, T. Gutu, J. Jiao, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Photoluminescence detection of biomolecules by antibody-functionalized diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 926–933 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartland, G. V.

M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, M.

M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, R.

S. Liu, T. Zhu, R. Hua, and Z. Liu, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into a highly organized two-dimensional array,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.4(24), 6059–6062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jana, S.

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffeyes, C.

C. Jeffeyes, J. Campbell, H. Li, J. Jiao, and G. L. Rorrer, “The potential of diatom nanobiotechnology for applications in solar cells, batteries, and electroluminescent devices,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(10), 3930–3941 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeffryes, C.

C. Jeffryes, R. Solanki, Y. Rangineni, W. Wang, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Electro-luminescence and photoluminescence from nanostructured diatom frustules containing metabolically inserted Germanium,” Adv. Mater.20(13), 2633–2637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, J.

C. Jeffeyes, J. Campbell, H. Li, J. Jiao, and G. L. Rorrer, “The potential of diatom nanobiotechnology for applications in solar cells, batteries, and electroluminescent devices,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(10), 3930–3941 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gale, T. Gutu, J. Jiao, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Photoluminescence detection of biomolecules by antibody-functionalized diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 926–933 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, M.-G.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreuzer, M. P.

S. S. Aćimović, M. P. Kreuzer, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon near-field coupling in metal dimers as a step toward single-molecule sensing,” ACS Nano3(5), 1231–1237 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lal, R.

D. Losic, J. G. Mitchell, R. Lal, and N. H. Voelcker, “Rapid fabrication of micro- and nanoscale patterns by replica molding from diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(14), 2439–2446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. C.

P. C. Lee and D. J. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” Phys. Chem.86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

C. Jeffeyes, J. Campbell, H. Li, J. Jiao, and G. L. Rorrer, “The potential of diatom nanobiotechnology for applications in solar cells, batteries, and electroluminescent devices,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(10), 3930–3941 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, G. Liu, and H. Li, “Development of a micro-swimming robot using optimized giant magnetostrictive thin films,” Appl. Bionics Biomech.3(3), 161–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.-Y.

M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lidorikis, E.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Y. Zhang, G. Liu, and H. Li, “Development of a micro-swimming robot using optimized giant magnetostrictive thin films,” Appl. Bionics Biomech.3(3), 161–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. K. Song, S. Park, F. M. Alamgir, J. Cho, and M. Liu, “Nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries: the latest developments, challenges, and perspectives,” Mater. Sci. Eng.72(11), 203–252 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, T. Zhu, R. Hua, and Z. Liu, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into a highly organized two-dimensional array,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.4(24), 6059–6062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

S. Liu, T. Zhu, R. Hua, and Z. Liu, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into a highly organized two-dimensional array,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.4(24), 6059–6062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Losic, D.

Y. Yu, J. Addai-Mensah, and D. Losic, “Synthesis of self-supporting gold microstructures with three-dimensional morphologies by direct replication of diatom templates,” Langmuir26(17), 14068–14072 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gordon, D. Losic, M. A. Tiffany, S. S. Nagy, and F. A. Sterrenburg, “The Glass Menagerie: diatoms for novel applications in nanotechnology,” Trends Biotechnol.27(2), 116–127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Losic, J. G. Mitchell, R. Lal, and N. H. Voelcker, “Rapid fabrication of micro- and nanoscale patterns by replica molding from diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(14), 2439–2446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Losic, G. Rosengarten, J. G. Mitchell, and N. H. Voelcker, “Pore architecture of diatom frustules: potential nanostructured membranes for molecular and particle separations,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.6(4), 982–989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marder, S. R.

Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and K. H. Sandhage, “Bilogically enabled syntheses of freestanding metallic structures possessing subwavelength pore arrays for extraordinary (surface plasmon-mediated) infrared transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(12), 2550–2559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, M.

M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meisel, D. J.

P. C. Lee and D. J. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” Phys. Chem.86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J. G.

D. Losic, J. G. Mitchell, R. Lal, and N. H. Voelcker, “Rapid fabrication of micro- and nanoscale patterns by replica molding from diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(14), 2439–2446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Losic, G. Rosengarten, J. G. Mitchell, and N. H. Voelcker, “Pore architecture of diatom frustules: potential nanostructured membranes for molecular and particle separations,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.6(4), 982–989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagy, S. S.

R. Gordon, D. Losic, M. A. Tiffany, S. S. Nagy, and F. A. Sterrenburg, “The Glass Menagerie: diatoms for novel applications in nanotechnology,” Trends Biotechnol.27(2), 116–127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pal, T.

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pande, S.

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panigrahi, S.

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. J.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.

M. K. Song, S. Park, F. M. Alamgir, J. Cho, and M. Liu, “Nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries: the latest developments, challenges, and perspectives,” Mater. Sci. Eng.72(11), 203–252 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and K. H. Sandhage, “Bilogically enabled syntheses of freestanding metallic structures possessing subwavelength pore arrays for extraordinary (surface plasmon-mediated) infrared transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(12), 2550–2559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Praharaj, S.

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

S. S. Aćimović, M. P. Kreuzer, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon near-field coupling in metal dimers as a step toward single-molecule sensing,” ACS Nano3(5), 1231–1237 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakich, P. T.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rangineni, Y.

C. Jeffryes, R. Solanki, Y. Rangineni, W. Wang, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Electro-luminescence and photoluminescence from nanostructured diatom frustules containing metabolically inserted Germanium,” Adv. Mater.20(13), 2633–2637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rorrer, G. L.

C. Jeffeyes, J. Campbell, H. Li, J. Jiao, and G. L. Rorrer, “The potential of diatom nanobiotechnology for applications in solar cells, batteries, and electroluminescent devices,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(10), 3930–3941 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gale, T. Gutu, J. Jiao, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Photoluminescence detection of biomolecules by antibody-functionalized diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 926–933 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jeffryes, R. Solanki, Y. Rangineni, W. Wang, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Electro-luminescence and photoluminescence from nanostructured diatom frustules containing metabolically inserted Germanium,” Adv. Mater.20(13), 2633–2637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosengarten, G.

D. Losic, G. Rosengarten, J. G. Mitchell, and N. H. Voelcker, “Pore architecture of diatom frustules: potential nanostructured membranes for molecular and particle separations,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.6(4), 982–989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabarinathan, J.

J. Sabarinathan, J. Topol'ancik, S. Chakravarty, P.-C. Yu, and W. Zhou, “Quantum dot photonic crystal light sources,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1825–1838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sandhage, K. H.

Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and K. H. Sandhage, “Bilogically enabled syntheses of freestanding metallic structures possessing subwavelength pore arrays for extraordinary (surface plasmon-mediated) infrared transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(12), 2550–2559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, H. I.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solanki, R.

C. Jeffryes, R. Solanki, Y. Rangineni, W. Wang, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Electro-luminescence and photoluminescence from nanostructured diatom frustules containing metabolically inserted Germanium,” Adv. Mater.20(13), 2633–2637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, M. K.

M. K. Song, S. Park, F. M. Alamgir, J. Cho, and M. Liu, “Nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries: the latest developments, challenges, and perspectives,” Mater. Sci. Eng.72(11), 203–252 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sterrenburg, F. A.

R. Gordon, D. Losic, M. A. Tiffany, S. S. Nagy, and F. A. Sterrenburg, “The Glass Menagerie: diatoms for novel applications in nanotechnology,” Trends Biotechnol.27(2), 116–127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiffany, M. A.

R. Gordon, D. Losic, M. A. Tiffany, S. S. Nagy, and F. A. Sterrenburg, “The Glass Menagerie: diatoms for novel applications in nanotechnology,” Trends Biotechnol.27(2), 116–127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Topol'ancik, J.

J. Sabarinathan, J. Topol'ancik, S. Chakravarty, P.-C. Yu, and W. Zhou, “Quantum dot photonic crystal light sources,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1825–1838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vo-Dinh, T.

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voelcker, N. H.

D. Losic, J. G. Mitchell, R. Lal, and N. H. Voelcker, “Rapid fabrication of micro- and nanoscale patterns by replica molding from diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(14), 2439–2446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Losic, G. Rosengarten, J. G. Mitchell, and N. H. Voelcker, “Pore architecture of diatom frustules: potential nanostructured membranes for molecular and particle separations,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.6(4), 982–989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

C. Jeffryes, R. Solanki, Y. Rangineni, W. Wang, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Electro-luminescence and photoluminescence from nanostructured diatom frustules containing metabolically inserted Germanium,” Adv. Mater.20(13), 2633–2637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, T.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P.-C.

J. Sabarinathan, J. Topol'ancik, S. Chakravarty, P.-C. Yu, and W. Zhou, “Quantum dot photonic crystal light sources,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1825–1838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, J. Addai-Mensah, and D. Losic, “Synthesis of self-supporting gold microstructures with three-dimensional morphologies by direct replication of diatom templates,” Langmuir26(17), 14068–14072 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, G. Liu, and H. Li, “Development of a micro-swimming robot using optimized giant magnetostrictive thin films,” Appl. Bionics Biomech.3(3), 161–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

J. Sabarinathan, J. Topol'ancik, S. Chakravarty, P.-C. Yu, and W. Zhou, “Quantum dot photonic crystal light sources,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1825–1838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

S. Liu, T. Zhu, R. Hua, and Z. Liu, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into a highly organized two-dimensional array,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.4(24), 6059–6062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

S. S. Aćimović, M. P. Kreuzer, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon near-field coupling in metal dimers as a step toward single-molecule sensing,” ACS Nano3(5), 1231–1237 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and K. H. Sandhage, “Bilogically enabled syntheses of freestanding metallic structures possessing subwavelength pore arrays for extraordinary (surface plasmon-mediated) infrared transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(12), 2550–2559 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gale, T. Gutu, J. Jiao, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Photoluminescence detection of biomolecules by antibody-functionalized diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 926–933 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Losic, J. G. Mitchell, R. Lal, and N. H. Voelcker, “Rapid fabrication of micro- and nanoscale patterns by replica molding from diatom biosilica,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(14), 2439–2446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

C. Jeffryes, R. Solanki, Y. Rangineni, W. Wang, C. H. Chang, and G. L. Rorrer, “Electro-luminescence and photoluminescence from nanostructured diatom frustules containing metabolically inserted Germanium,” Adv. Mater.20(13), 2633–2637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Bionics Biomech.

Y. Zhang, G. Liu, and H. Li, “Development of a micro-swimming robot using optimized giant magnetostrictive thin films,” Appl. Bionics Biomech.3(3), 161–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev.

M. Hu, J. Chen, Z.-Y. Li, L. Au, G. V. Hartland, X. Li, M. Marquez, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev.35(11), 1084–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Energy Environ. Sci.

C. Jeffeyes, J. Campbell, H. Li, J. Jiao, and G. L. Rorrer, “The potential of diatom nanobiotechnology for applications in solar cells, batteries, and electroluminescent devices,” Energy Environ. Sci.4(10), 3930–3941 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.

D. Losic, G. Rosengarten, J. G. Mitchell, and N. H. Voelcker, “Pore architecture of diatom frustules: potential nanostructured membranes for molecular and particle separations,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.6(4), 982–989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B

S. Panigrahi, S. Praharaj, S. Basu, S. K. Ghosh, S. Jana, S. Pande, T. Vo-Dinh, H. Jiang, and T. Pal, “Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(27), 13436–13444 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir

Y. Yu, J. Addai-Mensah, and D. Losic, “Synthesis of self-supporting gold microstructures with three-dimensional morphologies by direct replication of diatom templates,” Langmuir26(17), 14068–14072 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng.

M. K. Song, S. Park, F. M. Alamgir, J. Cho, and M. Liu, “Nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries: the latest developments, challenges, and perspectives,” Mater. Sci. Eng.72(11), 203–252 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem.

P. C. Lee and D. J. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” Phys. Chem.86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

S. Liu, T. Zhu, R. Hua, and Z. Liu, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into a highly organized two-dimensional array,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.4(24), 6059–6062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

J. Sabarinathan, J. Topol'ancik, S. Chakravarty, P.-C. Yu, and W. Zhou, “Quantum dot photonic crystal light sources,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1825–1838 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol.

R. Gordon, D. Losic, M. A. Tiffany, S. S. Nagy, and F. A. Sterrenburg, “The Glass Menagerie: diatoms for novel applications in nanotechnology,” Trends Biotechnol.27(2), 116–127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Diatom frustule model with 2-D periodic unit cells. (b) Simulated normalized optical transmission (blue line) and E-field EF of the diatom frustule (black line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) E-field EF of a single Ag NP on top of the diatom frustule (case I and case II) in the weakly coupled configuration (b) E-field EF of Ag NPs inside the pore (case III and case IV) in the strong coupled configuration. In (a) and (b), E-field distributions from the top view are plotted together with the schematics of the cross-section of structures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM pictures of (a) a diatom frustule, (b) Ag NPs self-assembled on the diatom frustule; (c) Dark-field image of self-assembled Ag NPs on diatoms frustules and on glass substrates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) measured extinction spectra of unmodified diatom (black), Ag NPs on glass (blue) and NPs on a diatom frustule (red). (b) SERS spectra on a diatom frustule (red) and on the glass substrate (blue). The inset picture shows where the SERS signals are collected

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